Strategic human resource practices and related problems in New Dynamic Institute (NDI)

Contents

1.0 Introduction 3

2.0 HR related problems 3

2.1 Low level in team effectiveness and cohesion 4

2.2 Low working morale and poor performance 6

2.3 Staff’s misbehavior 8

2.4 Impact of these problems on NDI’s goals and objectives 9

2.4.1 The definition of HR strategic problem 9

2.4.2 Influences on organizational goals and objectives 10

3.0 HR practices and methods 12

3.1 Downsizing 12

3.1.1 The practice of downsizing 12

3.1.2 The impact 13

3.2 Recruitment 14

3.2.1 The practice of recruitment 14

3.2.2 The impact 16

3.3 Staff training and performance management 17

3.3.1 The practice of Staff training and performance management 17

3.3.2 The impact 19

4.0 Recommendation 20

4.1 HR strategies on downsizing 20

4.1.1 Be Honest and avoid troubles on legal issues 21

4.1.2 Facilitation and support 22

4.1.3 Education, training and empowerment 22

4.2 HR strategies on recruitment 23

4.2.1 Rebalance the number of part time and full time employees 24

4.2.2 Employee recruitment process strategy 25

4.3 HR strategies on staff development and remuneration 26

4.3.1 Staff development strategy 26

4.3.2 Remuneration strategy 29

Reference 31

Appendix 34

List of Figure

Figure 1.0 A general systems model of the training and development process……….27

1.0 Introduction

This paper will make an analysis on the strategic human resource practices and related problems of the New Dynamic Institute (NDI) in China mainland, which is a promising organization focusing on English language training such as Interview English, Meeting English, Studying aboard English, Telephoning English, Business English, Negotiation English, Career English, Travel English and so on. As a potential English language training company, NDI is made up of several departments including marketing department, technical division, HR department, corporate division, individual division, financial department.

Although, NDI has already enjoyed a reputation as a popular English language training center, these HR practices related problems such as low team effectiveness and cohesiveness, low working morale and productivity from its employees and even some misbehaviors have occurred in the working places. As the HR consultant, some proper recommendations for NDI to alleviate and solve those HR related problems will be presented on the basis of the current HR practice and related problems in the end of this paper.

  1. HR related problems

According to the recent survey in NDI, there are three major strategic HR related problems will be stated and their impacts on NDI’s organizational goals and objectives will also be shown as the follow.

2.1 Low level in team effectiveness and cohesion

As Cascio (2010) mentioned, team effectiveness is such system of making people in a company or organization to work together effectively so as to help their company attain goals via using fewer resources. And team cohesiveness refers to the extent to which team members remain united as well as stick together to achieve a common goal (Daft 2010). While, several teams in NDI are seemed lack this kind of qualities.

For example, there is a common phenomenon that new students’ number is increased in NDI while the renew rate become lower as well as the profit gaining which is mainly due to the low level of team effectiveness and cohesion. On the one hand, the relationship among NDI’s employees isn’t harmonious because too many part time employees and over-emphasis the individual achievement make the communication among each member become scarce and ineffective. On the other hand, the hyper-competition inside NDI makes each team member only focus on the own benefits but ignore the cooperation with other team members.

Let take NDI’s academic teams for example. There are often five characters making up of the academic team such as administrative staff, curriculum designers, instructors, course consultants and support crew. And depending on customers’ diverse needs, the academic teams are short termed and once the course contacts are due, they often adjourn. And in the meantime, the time duration for majority of the course contacts are from three months to six months, which have the requirements of high effectively operated academic teams. But there are often some conflicts among these team members from time to time, which has decreased the satisfaction of customers as well as the rates of renew.

BASF Company’s training project for instance. According to BASF Company’s learning requirements, a proper teaching process and context was carried out by the course designer, the administrative staff and the consultant. But one of the part time course instructors noticed that the content of the course wasn’t interesting, so he changed the course topic without informing other team members in advance, which resulted in the situation in which other members of the academic team caught off guard when the BASF Company questioned the reasons for changing the course context without former notice.

Generally speaking, the above phenomenon disclosed the information that some of the teams in the NDI are lack of cohesiveness and effectiveness, such kind of non-cohesion and ineffectiveness may have several bad influences on fulfillment of its organizational goals and objective which will be analyzed later.

2.2 Low working morale and poor performance

In NDI another phenomenon also attracts our attention that is the low working morale and poor performance of some employees.

Firstly, there are many complaints rising from not only the customers but also the instructors. In terms of the customers’ complaint, it lays mainly on the slow progress of their English study. On the one hand, most of the customers admit the course curriculum and arrangement. On the other hand, there are several blames on the teaching process. For instance, as one of the customers said in the survey that they found several course instructors didn’t prepared the courses well enough, especially some of the foreign teachers who just prepared the course during the course break which can’t be enough and efficient for teachers to prepare their lessons. With reference to the instructors’ side, some part time teachers said the time for them to prepare their courses weren’t enough due to that they only receive the courses’ outline the day before their courses from the course designers by e-mail. And meanwhile, many instructors also complain that there are almost no rewards for their good performance in teaching which makes them lack of passion for their work. The shortage of preparation time for lessons, no special rewards for outstanding teaching performers as well as customers’ complaints become the great hindrance for instructors in NDI to have a positive working attitude and also decrease their working productivity as well.

As we talking about the inside communication part in NDI, it may be in a shortage range. For instance, as there are so many part time workers especially the part time instructors, some course information such as the customers’ feed back of the lessons, modified information on course design aspects as well as the advices or opinions on the course design from instructors may be delayed or outdated when reaching to these instructors or other related employees, which also result in some poor performances of the workers.

Moreover, due to some rumors of lay-off, many of the employees including the course instructors, consultants, front desk receptionists and other employees in NDI feel frustrated and worried about their future career, which results in these phenomena. For example, some course instructors even don’t prepare their courses before giving classes to customers, which makes several customers feel strange and angry compared with the previous performances of their instructors. Several receptionists in the front desk become different when receiving customers and makes several customers chose other training centers instead of their original preference – the NDI training centers.

By and large, all of the above phenomena suggest the low working morale and poor performances become a problem in NDI.

2.3 Staff’s misbehavior

There are many kinds of misbehaviors of the working staff inside NDI.

Some of the sales consultants often exaggerate the learning results of the English courses in NDI or give some fake data to their customers in order to sign more contacts to survive themselves in the organization. although this activity may attract some customers for NDI at a short period, there may be some fierce disputes and doubts from customers when customers know the truth and only have small progress in mastering English, which may not only affect the reputation of NDI but also reduce its renew rate from customers.

In addition, there are some lay-off employees in NDI, who speak ill of this company due to the complicated emption raised from that they are fired. For instance, some of these people spread some rumors such as who will be fired soon, which makes all the working staff in NDI feel nervous. And some of the sacked employees also spread some adverse news to the public such as rumors on the websites, which may also destroy the reputation and the steadiness of the NDI and bring several troubles for this organization.

Meanwhile, some staff of low level management has begun to hop new jobs. And more frustrated, some subordinates of these managers are planning to go with their leaders in order to escape from the unfair treatment in the future.

Moreover, some lay-off workers even choose to disclose some confidential information of NDI to its competitors such as METRO or EF to revenge this company. For example, some sacked sales consults disclose some sensitive information including the course quotation, contents and curriculums design to the rival company of NDI, which may help these competitors get customers from NDI via using lower course quotation.

And there is also such kind of scenario that some part time teachers may leave NDI suddenly without any notice in advance, which makes NDI suffer a great pressure both from the customers’ blame as well as immediate recruitment of new teachers.

2.4 Impact of these problems on NDI’s goals and objectives

2.4.1 The definition of HR strategic problem

The above problems including low level in team effectiveness and cohesion, low working morale and poor performance as well as staff’s misbehavior all belong to strategic HR related problems. Broadly speaking, strategic HR is about the alignment of the HR strategies with the corporate strategies, in which HR strategies mainly refers to these important plans and programs which can address as well as solve some significant issues related to the HR management in an organization and the corporate strategies often have the same content as the organization’s business strategies (Boselie & Boon2005). From this definition we can make the conclusion that the above problems mentioned in this essay are strategic HR related problems. First of all, all of these problems are all caused by some strategic HR practices of NDI which will be deliberately analyzed later. And meanwhile, these problems may hinder the alignment and integration between the HR strategies and corporate strategies, which will be mentioned in the following.

2.4.2 Influences on organizational goals and objectives

The same as other language train centers, NDI’S goal is to build a good reputation as the first class English language training center in China so as to gain great financial achievements, but these problems such as low level in team effectiveness and cohesion, low working morale and poor performance as well as staff’s misbehaviors have already become the barriers for this company to fulfill its goals and objectives.

To begin with, these problems may largely shake the already built good reputation of NDI as a trustful and useful English training center. The low working morale and poor performance of its employees may let down several NDI’s customers both old ones and new ones. As Cascio and Boudreau (2008) mentioned, this problem of employees’ low working morale and poor performance may shake the brand loyalty of customers to a relatively large extent. That is to say, the goals of making more profit and building and remaining a good reputation may be difficult to achieve due to the loss of a certain number of customers.

At the same time, these strategic related problems may also lower the sense of belonging of working individuals in NDI. The poor performance, low working morale, team in-cohesion as well as employees’ misbehaviors may be all partially caused by the shortage of the sense of belonging (Huselid 2005). And as Huselid (2005) advocated that only depending on the efforts of the entire employees of the organization, the company’s objectives can be achieved as fast and effectively as possible. In another word, the loss of employees’ sense of belonging may lead to the disunited of working employees which may hinder the smooth of fulfill of NDI’s goals or objectives.

All in all, these strategic HR related problems may have some bad influences on achieving NDI’s goals as the above analyzed.

  1. HR practices and methods

The following will give a statement on the current HR practices and methods of NDI which result in the above problems such as low level in team effectiveness and cohesion, low working morale and poor performance as well as staff’s misbehaviors.

3.1 Downsizing

3.1.1 The practice of downsizing

In terms of downsizing, it refers to the intentional reduction the size of the workforce at the level of all the working staff in order to survive in the downturn of economy, improve the organizational efficiencies or become a more attractive and potential candidate for the future merger or acquisition (Cummings and Worley 2008). Under the economy downturn period, NDI also adopts this means to survive, which involves several approaches.

Layoff is used by NDI as one of the downsizing approach. For instance, NDI has sacked some employees in both corporate division and individual division especially the instructors to save cost. And to avoid the situation of instructors’ shortage, NDI employed many part time instructors instead of full time ones to give lessons to students.

Another approach of downsizing adopted by NDI is called retrenchment, which is done by centralizing or specializing NDI’s operations in order to sustain or improve the productivity (Palmer et al. 2009). For example, NDI has put the combination of corporate division and individual division in the agenda, which means there may be no need to have two managers, two groups of employees including sales consultants, course designers as well as support crews and so on.

3.1.2 The impact

Although NDI plans to save the costs and maintain its competitiveness in the hypercompetition market, there are several drawbacks including low working morale and poor performance as well as staff’s misbehaviors.

At first, lay-off as a radical tactic of downsizing may lead to the loss of confidence and working passion of survival employees such as the poor performance and unsatisfactory service for customers (Mishra et al. 2009). Because as Mishra et al. (2009) mentioned that no matter how big or small the scale of lay-off, the application of this approach may result in the insecure and resentful feeling of some employees. Especially, when some of the lay-off employees may be friends of these survival employees, these survivors may feel a loss and resistance, which may make them absent-mind on working, increase their fear and anxiety as well as some political behaviors just as the above mentioned such as bad-mouth, job hopping, leaking confidential information and so on. By and large, such kind of approach may result in the poor performance of employees, which could indirectly decrease the satisfaction level of customers and the reputation of NDI as well.

Furthermore, retrenchment approach also has several disadvantages. Combination of the two departments of corporate division and individual division suggests some of the employees may be sacked and meanwhile this news hasn’t been announced officially to the related employees, which may easily cause lots of doubts and affect the positive working attitudes of employees in the two departments. Because of fear and anxiety for the future careers as well as the resent of the NDI, these misbehavior activities may be conducted by employees as well as low working morale and poor performance. (Palmer et al. 2009)

3.2 Recruitment

3.2.1 The practice of recruitment

Another HR practice conducted by NDI is in the HR recruitment aspect plus the staff development.

In terms of NDI’s recruitment practice, there are two important issues worth mentioning. On the one hand, the instructor recruitment becomes more oriented on the part time teachers rather than full time teachers under the idea of saving cost as well as attracts more customers under the help of rich teachers experience part time teachers. And most of these part time teachers, the Chinese instructors for instance, come from some public schools, who do have relatively rich teaching experience. But at the same time, those teachers often require for a higher payment for teaching. According to the data from NDI’s financial department, the hourly salary of those part time teachers is nearly150 on average while full time instructors may only cost NDI 80 per hour although those full time teacher may have a basic salary besides the course fee compared with part time teachers.

When referring to the English native speaker instructors’ recruitment, NDI often have relatively low assessment process on recruitment of this kind of instructors. That is to say, even those English native speakers don’t own any teaching experience before, who may be still welcomed by NDI since they are foreigners. Meanwhile, nearly 60% of these foreign instructors are part time teachers because some of them are just travelers who may never mean to settle down in China.

3.2.2 The impact

Although the above recruitment practice conducted by NDI is from good will, it has brought several troubles and headaches for this organization as below.

Firstly, the mentioned recruitment practice degrades the team effectiveness and cohesion in NDI. For one thing, the communication among members in teams of NDI is seemed ineffective and insufficient, which is mainly due to the large number of part time workers. Because those part time employees are paid by hour, most of them only come when they have courses, which means there are few chances for other members to have a face to face or some sufficient communication with these part time instructors. This situation becomes one of the major causes of the poor level team cohesion and effectiveness. Since the proper communication can’t be conducted appropriately among each team members, how can they improve they coordinate with each other properly and understand each other thoroughly? That’s why the BASF case would happen as the above mentioned.

At the meantime, too many part time instructors are also one of the reasons resulting in the poor performance of some instructors. On the one side, lack of sufficient communication among academic members may lead some of the instructors to have misunderstanding of the course outline, which may affect the teaching quality. On the other side, because most of the part time instructors are public school teachers, they may not have enough time to prepare the courses in NDI even though they are experienced teachers, which may also lead to the poor performance of the teaching practices. And furthermore, these part time foreign teachers, some of whom are travelers, sales man or occupied in other kinds of jobs, may easily perform poor, because they don’t have enough time to prepare and some of them even don’t have enough teaching experience before. (Cheney 2010)

    1. Staff training and performance management

3.3.1 The practice of Staff training and performance management

According to Tharenou et al. (2007), staff training consists of planned programs which are designed to improve performance at the individual, group, and/or organizational level.

With reference to the staff development areas, NDI may have done a relatively bad task. The training assessment as well as performance management in the HR practices is really not so appropriate.

The training programs in NDI mostly focus on the sales person which may have relatively mature coverage. While although there are some training programs for instructors, the coverage and content of them are not proper enough. For instance, there are some intensive training courses for the newly employed instructors which often including some course outlines, basic teaching skills, and presentation practices. But after this first period training practice, the following trainings for instructors are more like formalization without some practical benefits. And there are just some closed questionnaires for instructors to answer on their training needs and then the following development programs for instructors are still on the willingness of the management rather that the real needs of these instructors.

Worse still, trainings for those part time instructors are never put on the agenda of NDI’s training process. For most of the time, part time instructors just begin their class teaching as soon as they are employed. This situation is the same with these English native speaker instructors in NDI. That is why there is often the phenomenon that some customers ask the detailed information on the courses they will learn soon from their foreign instructors, who hesitate and often say they would like to have a look at their teaching material.

In terms of performance management in NDI, the current situation is also not so optimistic. On the one hand, the performance facilitation is really in a shortage, such as the outdated or poorly maintained teaching materials for instructors, inefficient design of work space, ineffective work method and so on. On the other hand, performance encouragement in NDI is also poor. For example, there is almost no sufficient number of rewards for employees who really value. That is to say, there may be small difference for the performance of those employees, especially the instructors that the poor performers may have the same level earning with good performers. (Cascio 2010)

3.3.2 The impact

The staff training and performance management practices in NDI may have more drawbacks than benefits.

First of all, the training practices, which are lack of proper assessment and practical usage, become one of the major causes of employees’ poor performance, especially for the part time instructors and some foreign teachers. Without proper guidance and information in the course requirement, customers’ needs and relatively professional skills development such as the classroom teaching ability, professional knowledge on the teaching content as well as the research ability and so on, the performance of these course instructors are difficult to improve, which may also arouse the unsatisfactory from customers and indirectly affect the reputation of NDI as the professional English language training center in China mainland.

Besides the above disadvantages, the performance management practices in NDI may also result in low working morale. As Cascio (2010) claimed, poor performance management just as NDI such as unfair treatment or ignorance on employees performance may only lead to the low productivity and working passion, since there is no different treatment and rewards or punishments on different kinds of performances. That becomes one of the reasons of the poor performances as well as low working morale of employees in NDI as well.

  1. Recommendation

Based on the above HR strategies and the related problems in NDI, some proper HR related strategies will be recommended in the following to assist NDI to manage the current situation.

4.1 HR strategies on downsizing

To avoid the side effects of downsizing such as low working morale and poor performance as well as staff’s misbehaviors in NDI, it suggests that NDI should adopt more proper HR strategies to facilitate the well function of downsizing and lower its risks as many as possible.

4.1.1 Be Honest and avoid troubles on legal issues

As Jones et al. (2004) and Khera Communications (2009) suggested it is better to clarify the truth of layoff to all the staff rather than use other means to avoid the disclosure of the information. And at the same time, it is necessary for HR department of NDI to give those employees who will be sacked more time extension to find new jobs. For instance, 45 days written notice in advance may reduce the resistance of some workers towards lay-off. And referring to these employees whose contracts with NDI haven’t expired, it is recommended NDI should offer proper compensation for them, which may also be very helpful to remove some misbehavior from the staff.

Meanwhile, to stabilize the morale of the staff under the pressure of downsizing, it’s really important for NDI to inform the plan of downsizing in advance to all the staff as well as shareholders, which may assist of all the NDI’s members to prepare themselves not only mentally but also physically. (Palmer et al. 2009 & Jones et al. 2004)

In addition, it is also important for NDI to take the related legal issues into account when conducting downsizing, such as the labor law or other labor protection rules (Khera Communications 2009).

4.1.2 Facilitation and support

As Daft (2008) said downsizing is a catalyst of bad mood of employees in organizations. Due to that, it is better for NDI to give survival employees appropriate facilitation as well as support. The HR department could invite some experienced consultants to mollify employees such as some tips to relieve their unease. And most of the importance is that treating all the staff even these will be sacked with respect as well as dignity in the downsizing process, which may also be helpful to remove some resistance and stabilize the working morale as well.

4.1.3 Education, training and empowerment

Instead of sacking many employees, another wise downsizing tactic is recommended for NDI, which could not only avoid the resistance of downsizing such as poor performance and misbehaviors from the staff but also facilitate its staff become more competent and confident. This tactic called cross training means to train working individuals performing in several tasks as well as assignments. (Reh 2009)

For example, the HR department of NDI is suggested to train the full time course instructors to act as not only language teachers but also course consultants. The reason behind this recommendation is that course instructors may have a better understanding of the teaching process compared with some consultants without any teaching experience and meanwhile they may be able to present more proper and practical information for students such as the course structures, the suggestions for students to choose from different types of courses, which may be more persuasive and attractive to these potential customers for NDI. And most important, the cross training strategy can enhance the competitiveness of these employees which can not only enhance their confidence but also improve their working morale because the more versatile skilled employees may earn more and also not be so easily to sacked by NDI. (Reh 2009)

Broadly speaking, the above HR strategies may not only help NDI remove several drawbacks of downsizing but also assist this organization to foster a harmonious relationship with its employees. (Reh 2009)

4.2 HR strategies on recruitment

To modify the original recruitment orientation, the following will give some proper and practical recommendations for NDI to improve its recruiting strategy based on its current situation.

4.2.1 Rebalance the number of part time and full time employees

Due to the above introduction, we have already got that NDI has been intended to adopt the part time teacher oriented recruitment. Although such kind of recruitment orientation is from a good willing to save the cost as well as maintain the teaching quality of NDI, the reality isn’t so dreamful. For one thing, these part time teachers are too flexible without steadiness. The sudden leaves may both decrease the satisfaction level of customers and affect the reputation of NDI. For the other, the certain number of part time teachers also make the teacher resource management meet a dilemma, such as the uncertain factors in teachers’ training and development. And most of importance is that if NDI is aimed to become the first class English language training company, to own a fixed and high quilted teaching group is a must.

Based on this situation, it suggests that NDI should reconsider its recruitment strategy and have more focus on full time teaching employment aspect. In another word, NDI had better to change its part time teacher oriented recruitment strategy to full time employee recruiting orientation.

4.2.2 Employee recruitment process strategy

As Cascio (2010) advocated the nine processes of employees recruitment and selection are important for organizations to select proper and right talents, which include processes such as job analysis, strategic workforce planning, recruitment, initial screen, selection, orientation, placement, and training as well as performance management. For NDI, in order to choose suitable and potential talents for both the current and future development, it is necessary for it to take the nine processes into consideration.

First of all, to choose proper candidates as the steady and potential full time employees, the job analysis and strategic workforce planning are necessary to carry out on the basis of the strategic business objectives of NDI. For instance, to specify the tasks requirements of jobs as well as the human resource requirements of new instructors, it is essential to gain as much information about these candidates as possible via tests and personal interviews, references or background checks, the course presentations as well as other samples of behaviors in order to choose the right candidates for NDI. And then the orientation programs for new employees had better clarify a thorough information of NDI’s policies, practices, employee benefits to these newly employed workers, which could can help these newly employed workers has a relatively clear guidance of how they should do and what they should do to assist this organization to achieve its business goals as well as make themselves have a brighter future and earning. The last but most important process worth mentioning here is the performance management process, in which it is significant for NDI to provide feedback to these employees involving the past and current job performance proficiency as well as the basis for performance improvement in the future for them. (Cascio2010)

By and large, under the help of the above strategies of recruitment aspect, NDI may be able to gain many potential talents who can be built as a fixed and steady working force for its future development without worry the uncertain factors from these part time employees’ impact on the well function of this organization. Meanwhile, these strategies could also help NDI to improve customers’ satisfaction and working staff’s confidence and sense of belonging without the hindrance and high pressure from part time employees. All in all, the strategies may work as a useful tool for NDI to enhance the working morale and performance of its employees due to the highly think of its employees and clearly working guidance. (Cascio2010)

4.3 HR strategies on staff development and remuneration

4.3.1 Staff development strategy

Just as Huselid (2005) and Cascio (2010) claimed that once employees are “on board”, the personal growth as well as development of them should become a major concern of their organization. In order to keep pace with the changing environment and to deal with it effectively, the planned employee training and development programs are essential for organizations, which is the same for NDI.

In terms of employees’ training and development, NDI is recommended to carry out a well designed and appropriate program under the guidance of general systems model of the training and development as figure 1.0 shows including assessment phase, training and development phase and evaluation phase.

Figure 1.0 A general systems model of the training and development process.

figure 1.0

 

Source: Cascio, W.F. 2010, Managing human resources: Productivity, quality of work life, profits, 8th edn, McGraw Hill, New York,

As refer to the assessment phase, the proper analysis and assessment of employees’ needs are necessary. The training programs for course instructors referring to both Chinese instructors as well as English native speaker instructors, for instance, should take the real human resource development needs of these instructors into account including the needs on knowledge accumulation, class teaching ability as well as research ability. And based on the continuing professional development theory for teachers of Day (1997 cited in Day & Sachs 2004), we designed a practical and appropriate research method-the survey research to collect primary data from instructors as well as customers via questionnaires and interviews attached in the appendix, which is designed to gather information not only from the teachers’ aspect but also integrate the teachers’ needs with NDI’s organizational objective. And then, the development and training programs can be conducted more smoothly under the support of the previous needs assessment process.

The last process of evaluation should also be emphasized both includes the feedback from instructors as well as students’ feedback on teachers’ performance after the attending the training programs which should also be obtained from the attached appendix based on the recommendation from Stafford (2006).

By and large, under the assistance of the three training and development processes mentioned above as well as these practically designed questionnaires and interviews involving both employees and customers, NDI could enhance its working staff’s performance such as the teachers’ performance level to a large extent and meanwhile combination the market needs from customers with the training and development programs could also improve customers’ satisfaction and NDI’s reputation.

4.3.2 Remuneration strategy

To largely enhance the working morale and enthusiasm of employees in NDI, we also suggest this organization to modify its remuneration strategy, which had better include two aspects such as the financial one and nonfinancial one (Stone 2011).

On the current situation of NDI, besides the pay for performance approach for sales people is encouraged to keep using, the performance of course instructors is also suggested to connect with their payment. As Day and Sachs (2004) advised that connecting the performance with their earnings can incent teachers to work harder and indirectly incent them to be keen on improving their competitiveness in order to gain more, which is recommended for NDI to adopt.

In addition, besides the financial reward, the non-financial one is also necessary. To maintain talents and enhance the sense of belonging of employees, NDI is also advised to depend on some benefit plans for its employees (Cascio 2010). For instance, NDI could provide a complete series of security and health benefits including life insurance, disability insurance, hospitalization, surgical and maternity coverage, unemployment insurance, pension plans, social security, leave and so on to ease employees’ worry about downsizing or unemployment and meanwhile the considerable care such as employee services including children care, family leaves, elder care and so on may also be selectively adopted by NDI to build a good followership. (Cascio 2010)

All in all, all of the above recommended HR strategies will help NDI alleviate its current problems and assist it to have a brighter future.

Reference

Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. 2005, Commonalities and Contradictions in HRM and Performance Research, Human Resource Management Journal, vol. 15, p. 67-94,

Cascio, W.F. 2010, Managing human resources: Productivity, quality of work life, profits, 8th edn, McGraw Hill, New York,

Cascio, W.F. & Boudreau, J.W. 2008, Investing in People: Financial Impact of Human Resource initiatives, Financial Time Press, New Jersey,

Cheney, G. 2010, Organizational Communication in An Age of Globalization: Issues, Reflections, Practice, Waveland Press, Long Grove,

Cummings & Worley 2005, Organization Development & Change, 8th edn, Thomson south-western, USA

Daft, R.L. 2008, The Leadership Experience, 4th edn, ed. Calhoun, Acuna & Sabatino, Thomson South-Western, USA.

Daft, R.L.2010, New era of management, 9th edn, South-Western, Ohio,

Day, C. & Sachs, J. 2004, International Handbook on the continuing professional development of teachers, Open University Press, England, p.34,

Huselid, M.A. 2005, The Impact of Human Resource Management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance, Academic of Management Journal, Vol. 38, p. 635-672,

Jones, A., Watson, B., Garner, J., & Gallois, C. 2004, Organizational Communication: Challenges for The New Century, Journal of Communication, vol.19, p.722-750.

Khera Communications 2009, 5 Tips for Downsizing and Layoffs, more business.com, viewed 12 February 2011,

<http://www.morebusiness.com/company-downsizing>

Mishra, A., Mishra, K., & Spreitzer 2009, Downsizing the company without downsizing Morale, MIT Sloan Management Review, viewed 11 February 2011,

<http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/articles/2009/spring/50310/downsizing-the-company-without-downsizing-morale/>

Palmer, I., Dunford, R. & Akin, G. 2009, Managing Organizational Change, 2nd edn, Mc-Graw Hill Higher Education, New York,

Reh 2009, Cross Training Employees, About.com, viewed 13 February 2011,

< http://womeninbusiness.about.com/od/layoffsandjobcuts/a/fair-layoffs.htm>

Stafford, J.T. 2006, The Importance of Educational Research in the Teaching of History, vol. 40, viewed 15 February2011,

<http://www2.education.ualberta.ca/css/css_40_1/ARStafford_educational_research_history.htm>

Stone, R. 2011, Human Resource Management, 7th edn, Milton Old: John Wiley & Sons, Australia, Ltd,

Tharenou, P., Saks, A.M., & Moore, C. 2007, A Review and Critique of Research on Training and Organizational-level Outcomes, Human Resource Management Review, vol.17, p. 251-273,

Appendix

Questionnaires…………………………………………………………………….35-41

Interviews…………………………………………………………………………42-43

Corporate Training Teacher Questionnaire

Thank you for taking the time to complete this questionnaire. It will help us to ensure that you feel you are given enough opportunities for communication regarding your class(es) and voicing possible concerns.

Give each of the following statements a mark from 1 to 5

1

2

3

4

5

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Sometimes

Agree

Strongly

Agree

Trainees 1 2 3 4 5
1. The students are vocal and participate actively in the course.
2. The students attend the course regularly and on time.
3. Their confidence in English has improved.
4. The students give active feedback and raise concerns to you.
5. The students understand your explainations easily.
6. You are given sufficient help from the students or the class monitor.
7. You have a good rapport with the students.
Your Training
8. You give clear and easy-to-understand instructions.
9. You are well prepared for class.
10. You provide training in an interesting and intelligent way.
11. You keep to the point of the topic for the duration of the class.
12. You correct the students mistakes frequently and thoroughly.
13. You provide plenty of opportunity for students oral communication.
14. You review the previous class with the students.
15. You provide a warm-up and wrap-up for every class.
The Course Materials
16. The materials are appropriate for the students language level.
17. The materials provide enough activities to keep the class active.
18. The materials are well designed and easy to teach..
19. The materials are provided with sufficient preparation time.
The Corporate Office
20. The Corporate Office staff has provided sufficient support when needed.
21. You have had your suggestions listened to and seen improvements made.
22. The staff keep you up to date about any changes in the course.
Additional Comments:

Instructor: Date:

Survey of teachers’ professional development needs in New Dynamic Institute

–Questionnaire for teachers

  1. Teacher opinions (multiple choice)

1. What is the main type of trainees in the professional development programs?

a. Teachers from different teaching subjects,

b. Teachers with different teaching age,

c. Teachers with different level of teaching capacity,

d. Teachers from the same teaching subjects,

e. Teachers with the same teaching age,

f. Teachers with the same level of teaching capacity.

2. What are the main training forms you have attended?

a. concentrated study with more than 30 people,

b. concentrated study with less than 15 people,

c. big lectures,

d. report,

e. individual training,

f. competitive training.

3. What is the training content on class teaching ability development area and the effect?

a. scarcely having such kind of trainings,

b. very general information often needs the trainees to summarize the conclusions by themselves and just a waste of time,

c. relatively useful knowledge such as some guidance on management different classes of different grades and have relatively satisfied results,

d. very fantastic coverage of different areas on enhancing the class teaching ability with great satisfaction.

4. What is the training content on research ability development area and the effect?

a. scarcely having such kind of trainings,

b. often under the guidance of one appointed supervisors, but not proper guidance.

c. often under the guidance of one appointed supervisors, with relatively proper guidance,

d. often under the guidance of one appointed supervisors with superb guidance.

5. What is the training content on professional knowledge development on the teaching subject area and the effect?

a. the trainings covers little on the concepts and structure of teachers’ teaching subjects, the key knowledge points in teaching subjects and the necessary knowledge on their teaching subjects including the knowledge system of the teaching subjects and background knowledge of the teaching subjects and so on, which isn’t effective.

b. the trainings covers several areas on the concepts and structure of teachers’ teaching subjects, the key knowledge points in teaching subjects and the necessary knowledge on their teaching subjects including the knowledge system of the teaching subjects and background knowledge of the teaching subjects and so on, but these programs still needs further development.

c. the trainings covers a good many areas on the concepts and structure of teachers’ teaching subjects, the key knowledge points in teaching subjects and the necessary knowledge on their teaching subjects including the knowledge system of the teaching subjects and background knowledge of the teaching subjects and so on, but these programs still needs further development, which is very effective and proper.

6.

Please indicate how you currently do in each of the following in your teaching instruction. (Darken or tick one oval on each line.)

a. When you planning the teaching curriculum as well as instruction, you always take students’ prior understanding into account

b. Do you often help students work in cooperative learning groups

c. You always adopt the textbook as a resource rather than the primary instructional tool

Not

Adequately

Prepared

Somewhat

Prepared

FairlyWell

Prepared

VeryWell Prepared

  1. Teachers needs and background

7.

Do you have the following degrees?
Bachelors

Masters

Doctorate

Yes / No

Yes / No

Yes / No

 

8. what’s your needs on class teaching ability development?

  1. Basic knowledge of science and humanities and instrumental knowledge
  2. Knowledge of pedagogy on the teaching subjects
  3. Professional knowledge on the teaching subject

9. which of the following best describe the ability of the students in your class relative to other students in this school?

a. Fairly homogeneous and low in ability

b. Fairly homogeneous and average in ability

c. Fairly homogeneous and high in ability

d. Heterogeneous, with a mixture of two or more ability levels

10. which of the following do you often do in your teaching instruction?

a. Introduce content through formal presentations

b. Pose open-ended questions

c. Engage the whole class in discussions

d. Allow students to work at their own pace

e. Read and comment on the reflections students have written,

Survey of teachers’ professional development needs in New Dynamic Institute

–Questionnaire for students

  1. Study Performance

BEFORE

Study Performance

AFTER

A bit Profoundly A bit Profoundly
1. Understanding on the course knowledge
2. Interest and positivity on study
3. Improvement on learning habit
4. Quality of homework
5. Interaction between teachers and students
6. Studying atmosphere of your class

Note: Students’ study performance BEFORE or AFTER teachers attending their professional development programs.

2. What do you think the needs of your teachers on class teaching ability development?

a. master the support tools and music, art and graphic software to make the teaching more interesting,

b. the communication skills to build good human relationships between teachers and students

c. the leadership skills to manage and control classroom teaching under different situation

3. What do you think the needs of your teachers on professional knowledge development?

  1. Basic knowledge of science and humanities and instrumental knowledge
  2. Knowledge of pedagogy on the teaching subjects
  3. Professional knowledge on the teaching subject

4. Which of the following do your teachers often do in your teaching instruction?

a. Introduce content through formal presentations

b. Pose open-ended questions

c. Engage the whole class in discussions

d. Require students to supply evidence to support their claims

e. Read and comment on the reflections students have written,

5. Teaching Performance

BEFORE

Study Performance

AFTER

A bit Profoundly A bit Profoundly
1. When they planning the teaching curriculum as well as instruction, they always take students’ prior understanding into account
2. Do they often help students work in cooperative learning groups
3. They always adopt the textbook as a resource rather than the primary instructional tool
4. As a language teacher, they always encourage participation of students

Note: Students’ teaching performance BEFORE or AFTER teachers attending their professional development programs.

6. Which of the following best describe the ability of the teachers in your class relative to other teachers in this training center?

a. Fairly homogeneous and low in ability

b. Fairly homogeneous and average in ability

c. Fairly homogeneous and high in ability

d. Heterogeneous, with a mixture of two or more ability levels

Survey of teachers’ professional development needs in New Dynamic Institute

Interview for teachers

1. What do you consider to be the most important problem facing classroom teachers in your organization?

2. What are your needs on professional development programs in the future?

3. What are your suggestions on the future professional development programs for teachers in New Dynamic Institute?

Survey of teachers’ professional development needs in New Dynamic Institute

Interview for students

1. What do you consider to be the most important problem facing classroom teachers in this organization?

2. What were the things about this class you found most useful during the past semester?

3. What are your suggestions on the future professional development programs for your teachers?

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