Political System in China

The system of people’s congresseses is the fundamental political system of China. According to the official website of the NPC (npc.gov.cn), Constitution of the People’s Republic of China prescribes that all power of the state belongs to the people. The National People’s Congress(NPC) and local people’s congresses at all levels are the organs through which the people exercise state power. The people’s congresses at all levels are constituted through democratic elections, and they are responsible to the people and subject to their oversight. The administrative, judicial and procuratorial organs of the state are created by the people’s congresses, to which they are responsible and by which they are overseen. The National People’s Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, and special administrative regions, and of deputies elected from the armed forces. All the minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation.

The State Structure

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The reporting structure of the central state organs

According to the constitution of China, the central state organs consist of six bodies: The National People’s Congress, The President of the People’s Republic of China, The State Council, The Central Military Commission, The Supreme People’s Court and The Supreme People’s Procuratorate. The reporting structure is shown in the figure above.

The National People’s Congress

The National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China is the supreme organ of state power. Its permanent body is the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. The National People’s Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, and special administrative regions, and of deputies elected from the armed forces. All the minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation.

The President

The President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are elected by the National People’s Congress.Citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have the right to vote and to stand for election and who have reached the age of 45 are eligible for election as President or Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China.

The State Council

The State Council, that is, the Central People’s Government, of the People’s Republic of China is the executive body of the supreme organ of state power; it is the supreme organ of State administration. The State Council is composed of the following: the Premier; the Vice-Premiers; the State Councillors; the Ministers in charge of ministries; the Ministers in charge of commissions; the Auditor-General; and the Secretary-General.

The Central Military Commission

The Central Military Commission of the People’s Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country.

The Supreme People’s Court

The Supreme People’s Court is the highest trial organ in the country and exercises its right of trial independently. It is also the highest supervising organ over the trial practices of local people’s courts and special people’s courts at various levels. It reports its work to the National People’s Congress and its Standing Committee.

The people’s procuratorates

The people’s procuratorates are State organs for legal supervision. The Supreme People’s Procuratorate is the highest procuratorial organ. It is mainly responsible for supervising regional procuratorates and special procuratorates to perform legal supervision by law and protecting the unified and proper enforcement of State laws.

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