How does the name of “China” come from?
In the ancient China(中国), the two character “中” and “国“ represent center and country respectively. That is the country in the center. With limited geography knowledge, people considered that the land under their feet was the only continent on the earth. Different states or nations within the current territory of China in different periods would claim that their state or nation was the centered country showing off their ownership and right to dominate the whole land. Therefore, the word 中国 was simply an adjective and also the diplomatic saying of each emperor in various periods.
Since the 1911 revolution, the name of 中国 was first used as the name for the country till today.
As for its English name, the country was just named after its famous product: china. And this again tells a ridiculous truth that name is just used for memorizing purpose, and nothing.
The famous product in China: china