Organizational structure, culture, power and leadership

Content

1.0 Leadership behaviors 3

1.1 Definitions 3

1.2 Internal behaviors 4

1.2.1 Sharing idea and encouragement 4

1.2.2 Equality building 5

1.3 External parts 6

2.0 Charismatic leadership 8

2.1 Charismatic leadership qualities 9

2.1.1 Future goal 9

2.1.2 Likableness 10

2.1.3 Expertise and Environmental sensitivity 10

2.1.4 Articulation 11

2.1.5 Power base 12

2.2 Dysfunctional aspects 12

2.2.1 Power aspect 13

2.2.2 Routine and pragmatism 14

3.0 Organizational structure, culture, power and leadership 15

3.1 Organizational structure 15

3.1.1 Definition 15

3.1.2 Functions 15

3.1.3 Suggestions 17

3.2 Organizational culture and suggestion 19

3.2.1 Definition 20

3.2.2 Culture’s functions 20

3.2.3 Suggestions 22

3.3 Organizational power and suggestions 24

3.3.1 Definition and functions 25

3.3.2 Suggestions 26

Figures

Figure 1.0 Situational Theory of Hersey and Blanchard………………………………3

Figure 2.0 The current organizational chart for Creative Airline…………………….17

Figure 3.0 A new organizational structure for Creative Airline………………………19

Figure 4.0 The types of organizational culture……………………………………….23

Figure 5.0 Power base for leaders……………………………………………………25

1.0 Leadership behaviors

1.1 Definitions

According the information and behaviors practised by Norton’s, we may define the leadership behaviors of Norton have a high tendency to the participating leadership behaviors. And Hughes, et al. (2006) pointed out that leadership behaviors are influenced by the function of intelligence, experience, interests, personality traits, values, attitudes, knowledge and emotional intelligence and so on. Meanwhile, according to the situational theory of Hersey and Blanchard in figure 1.0 , we get that the participating leadership behaviors often represent a combination of high concern on people and relationships and share ideas with employees to facilitate the decision making process ( Daft 2010) .

Figure 1.0 Situational Theory of Hersey and Blanchard

figure 1.0

Source: the center for leadership studies.

1.2 Internal behaviors

Based on the two perspectives from Hughes, et al. (2006) and Hersey and Blanchard (cited in Daft 2010), we can find out these leadership behaviors illustrated by Norton in the case.

1.2.1 Sharing idea and encouragement

In the first place, in the inside parts of the airline founded by Norton we can find out many his leadership behavior practices. At first, according to Daft (2010), the readiness level of employees corresponding to participating leadership behaviors belonged to R 3. That is to say, employees may feel a kind of insecure or unwilling to perform their job well although most of them are able to. From the case, we may notice that this Airline were a newly established company, so towards to the future development, the job content or the future careers or promotion issues for employees may stay relatively confusing and vague. Such kind of situation may lead these employees in this Airline had a sense of insecure and even doubt about themselves and the future of their company, which can be regarded as the level 3 readiness level in Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory.

In the second place, due to the situation that the company may be brand new to its employees and employees may have a sense of insecure even most of them are so capable, Norton had resorted to his fantastic interpersonal skills. As the case mentioned, Norton was a dynamic and emotionally stirring speaking. With the assistance of this skill, Norton practised the leadership behaviors in sharing idea and encouraging aspects. He made full use of every chance to spread and share his vision with his staff. As the interpersonal skills can help company leaders to motivate, facilitate, coordinate, lead, communicate and resolve conflicts in the company (Moyers & Miller 2005), this kind of skill also contributed to the successful leadership behaviors of visioning sharing and encouragement of Norton. For example, in the case we can get many employees in this airline spoke highly of Norton that they admired him as an inspirational leaders who can motivate them and convince them towards their ability, which indicated the successful leadership behaviors practised by Norton.

1.2.2 Equality building

As the bureaucratic organization has many disadvantages including discouragement in creativity and innovation, less job satisfaction rate as well as relatively high turnover rate and so on, for the new airline company established by Norton wasn’t suitable (Yang 2009). To maintain an enthusiasm, excitement and optimism working environment for employees in the company, many behaviors were carried out by Norton to establish an equal organizational culture so as to promote the working enthusiasm and optimism.

On the one hand, Norton emphasized the leadership behaviors in employees’ aspect such as teambuilding so much to improve the decision making effectiveness. For example, to make every employees to show their ideas and suggestions or even complaints towards their job and facilitate the decision making process, employees are organization into teams to improve the horizontal communication efficiency (Rahman & Kumaraswamy 2008). And to maintain the equality and idea sharing, some representatives were nominated by team members to communicate the top management directly. Such kind of open communication policy practised in this airline was beneficial for the upper management to have a correct evaluation on the actual situation of this organization and adopt proper strategy and necessary adjustment to operate this company in a health direction (Rahman & Kumaraswamy 2008). And this kind of leadership behaviors of Norton in the early year in the Airline was proved useful by its success in the early years.

On the other hand, in the management side, Norton also tried every means to maintain the equality via several leadership behaviors. At first, managers in this company were expected and directed by Norton to only offer some proper guidance to employees instead of dictating them or coercive means, which was to motivate employees with a consideration on the employees’ feelings. Secondly, the status perk in some organizations can’t be found in this company, as it was encouraging the open and enthusiasm working atmosphere. Instead of servicing by the subordinates, many managers and even executives in Norton’s company had to answer calls and type letters by themselves. This kind of behaviors and practice by Norton was to remove the hierarchy inside the airline to make communication and decision making more smoothly with a relatively full consideration of employees’ emotion (Rahman & Kumaraswamy 2008), which was also proved to be right in the early time of this airline as the case description.

1.3 External parts

According to the information in this case, we can get that there were two pointes emphasized by Norton to achieve the prosperity of this business, which included the emphasis on the new type of organization building to promote productivity and creativity as well as low cost and no-frills service to customers to promoting the selling. Referring to the customer service aspect, Norton had also carried out several effective behaviors as the leader of the Creative Airline without satisfying the benefits of working staff.

At first, Norton implemented the low cost and convenient schedules for customers flying with Creative Airline. As we all know, low ticket cost offered by the airline company may indicate some operations inside this company to reduce cost so as to offering the cheaper ticket for customers (Dutta 2009), which was so actual for this company. Norton had practised many measures to lower the operation cost of his company, one of which was the reducing salaries of employees in the Airline. Although compared with other competitors, the monthly salary in Creative Airline may be able to compete, these complementary welfares for employees such as fringe benefits, profit sharing and stock dividends may made up this gap, which also disclose the care and consideration of Norton as a participant leader for his employees. In fact, via the fringe benefits, profit sharing and stock dividends to improve the total incoming of employees were suitable for this airline, which may motivate employee to work with much more passion to attract more customers for their company so as to gain more. So for this part, the participating leadership behaviors of Norton was also reflected that he showed great considerations on the welfare of employees and relationship maintaining by these welfare means to improve their incomings.

Moreover, many operating strategies were also implemented by Norton as a participating leader to improve the overall welfare and performance of people in Creative Airline. The first issue enforced by Norton was the purchasing activities that Norton’s company had brought some surplus airplanes from other companies with low rates, which was also a useful measure for this company to save money from operating cost. And meanwhile, as the leader, Norton’ behaviors were always to improve the benefits for the entire company and its members. Some aircrafts were modified and reconfigured to carry more passengers as the case mentioned which was also useful to improve the revenue of this company and the incoming of employees. And then, favorable strategies also offered to customers under the lead of Norton that flight tickets were able to be done in travel agents or on the airplane with the assistance of ticketing machines, which was also effective for this airline to save cost and resources.

With the contribution of Norton’s participating leadership behaviors to promote the working creativity, productivity and welfare of employees so as to improve their performance to help Creative Airline attract more customers (Daft 2010), the success of this company was obvious to us. According to the case, even in the economy downturn period, Norton’s company had a good development, which indicated the effectiveness of Norton’s leadership behaviors to his company.

2.0 Charismatic leadership

According to Wang and Chou (2005), charisma is a crucial factor to establish the leader’s credibility in the organization, especially in setting up the internal culture. And meanwhile, Max Weber (1947 cited in Baehr 2008) defined the charisma as a essence of the personality of leaders by virtue, which is regarded as a endowed gift with supernatural, superhuman or some specially powers or qualities. And such kind of quality may not be so fit for ordinary people. Based on the two aspects, we have the definition of charismatic leadership that it is this kind of leader who often influence their subordinates more easily compared to other kinds of leaders. And the charismatic leader often inspires their people depending on their passion and energy which is heightened (Cicero 2007). And the essential qualities associated with charismatic leadership are made up of four aspects. The first one is that the charismatic leader owns a compelling vision compared with other kinds of leaders. The second one is the charismatic leader possesses a capability to communicate the vision with these followers in a clear and understandable manner. The third one is that what the leader said and done are consistent and concentrates on the leadership efforts. The last one is that the charismatic leader has a good understanding on his or her strong points (Cicero 2007).

2.1 Charismatic leadership qualities

And from the case, we get to know Norton was such kind of charismatic leader in the Creative Airline who created a certain kind of environment in the workplace on the basis of the commitment to his vision, management philosophy and other kinds of leadership behaviors to lead his people (Wang & Chou 2005).

2.1.1 Future goal

As the charismatic leader, the first quality owned by Norton was the far sight to set up future goals which showed his vision about the organization development was different from the status quo to a large extent (Mumford, Antes & Caughron 2008). For example, just in the very beginning of the company founded, Norton had set up the two visions for this organization including providing low cost and no frills services to attract customers who focusing on the transportation price so much as well as fostering a new kind of organization with a better working manner for people to work together and make full use of their creativity and productivity.

Such kind of practices implemented by Norton showed us his far sight to first got the accomplishment of the bottom line namely the importance of customers for the business and then take the airline to a higher level by improving and taking advantage of its people’s efforts (Mumford, Antes & Caughron 2008).

2.1.2 Likableness

The next quality possessed by Norton as a charismatic leadership was his likableness by people. It was his perspectives and idealized visions shared by these followers that made him a likable and honorable leader in Creative Airline which was worth identifying and admiring by people (Kumar 2007). For example, in this case, we can see that Norton showed a great care for people including his efforts in fostering a good working atmosphere to make people have chances to show themselves, patiently to educate and train people to have a better understanding of company vision and business goals, and establishing the equality in the workplace to remove the typical bureaucratic structure.

In short, all of these good deeds by Norton contributed his good image among employees, and no wonder, employees admired his so much.

2.1.3 Expertise and Environmental sensitivity

As the Charismatic leader, Norton also had the quality of expertise and sensitivity (Mumford, Antes & Caughron 2008). During the dilemma time of Creative Airline, Norton worked as a trainer to educate and train these potential employees for the management roles which reflected his expertise skills in management or else he may not be able to offer such kind of training programs for employees. And moreover, the purchasing of discount aircrafts and refiguring project on these aircrafts to transform the first class them into coach seats reflected his expertise in financing and aircraft system. And just because of his expertise, he led the Creative Airline to enjoy a rapid growth and success in the early time.

And besides the above, Norton was also very sensitive to the environment (Mumford, Antes & Caughron 2008). In the case, we see that the strategies such as low cost ticket and flexible services to help customers to make their tickets done in travel agents or even on the airplane reflected he was so careful to observe the requirement of the environment and the customers to make his company run flexibly.

2.1.4 Articulation

Norton was also good at communication and articulation. He was so steadfast as well as non-wavering towards his belief and vision to achieve the business goals (Chung, Chen & Lee 2011). For example, in the begging year of the business, he set tow kinds of proper and effective visions to this airline and clarified as well as communicated them with employees effectively, which showed his quality in articulation as the charismatic leader.

And in the business dilemma period, Norton was also so steadfast and non-wavering towards the business visions that he still focused on the expansion and developing of the business to a boarder range, although it was failed, which still reflected such kind of quality of Norton for us (Chung, Chen & Lee 2011).

2.1.5 Power base

The other quality Norton owned as the charismatic leader was his power base. As the leader, Norton’s good qualities including creativity, innovation, enthusiasm, interpersonal skills, professional knowledge and so on established a firm power base for him (Fairholm 2009). Just because of such kind of power base Norton would influence him follower and led them to work towards the vision, which was reflected in the beginning success of Creative Airline.

And in the business downturn period, Norton’s power base reflected more thoroughly that there was no body in this company who dared to cross his power and went against his orders or else they may be fired just as the consequences of the key managing officer.

2.2 Dysfunctional aspects

Every thing has two sides, the charismatic leadership owns its shinning aspects, and there are also dark areas. For Norton as the charismatic leader in Creative Airline there were also some dysfunctional aspects.

2.2.1 Power aspect

The strong power companied by Norton both as the founder and the leader of Creative Airline was a two edge sword. As Khoo (2008) mentioned in the first place, the Norton’s power as the charismatic leader enabled him to establish an important betterment for people to work together with creativity and productivity. In the second place, the great attraction from the power also resulted in Norton’s mismanagement to dominate and subjugate his followers.

From case, during the dilemma period of Creative Airline, Norton still insisted that it was the first and primary task for this company to expand business which was regarded by him as the most correct means to solve the problems rather than other means. And worse still, he acted so arbitrary to accept any suggestion from his followers.

As the case told us, because of such kind of arbitrary management rising from Norton’s strong power base, communication problems frequently occurred, necessary management roles were vacant even the position of president and overburden tasks to employees and managers to finish and so on, which all were as a resistance for Creative Airline to continue its prosperity.

In short, although the power as the charismatic leader brought Norton the right and power to lead, direct and order his followers towards targeted goals, it also contributed to his arrogance and arbitrary management.

2.2.2 Routine and pragmatism

As the charismatic leader, Norton also acted too routine and pragmatic in the later period (Khoo 2008). As the beginning of Creative Airline’s development we can get there were two visions set up including the low cost and no frill services for customers and an encouraging working environment for employees. These visions were proved proper in the beginning period of Creative Airline from its early success. While the environment was changing from time to time, it required business participants to make proper adjustment responding to these changes. But, Norton was seemed so rigid and stubborn to stick to the visions from the very beginning to the end and refused to make some adjustments.

For example, it may be obvious for all to notice that one of the problems hindering the healthy development of Creative Airline was the improper management in human resource management which called for a change and complement to the necessary management talents other than expanded the business such as adding new routes, purchasing new and larger aircraft and recruitment new employees. And the old decision making manner also lagged the time and speed of problem solving, which didn’t arouse the attention of Norton either.

To summary, these kinds of decisions made by Norton may be due to his routine and pragmatism quality as a charismatic leader who believed in and relied on his personal charm and capability too much instead of listening to others (Khoo 2008).

3.0 Organizational structure, culture, power and leadership

3.1 Organizational structure

3.1.1 Definition

Daft (2010) argued that organizational structure is the framework in which the organization defines how tasks are divided, resources re allocated and department are coordinated. And the organizational structure is also a kind of network, between working employees and their positions in the organization, which assists employees to work together to achieve organizational objectives.

3.1.2 Functions

There functions of organizational structure often contribute to the smooth progress of the organization led by its leader.

3.1.2.1 Assisting operation

The primary function of organizational structure is its association with decision making process. As several organizations have either a tall or flat organizational structure. And these kinds of organizational structure often enables companies especially these small organizations to make a relatively quicker decisions, because these small scale companies often have a rapid growth speed with introduction of new products and flexibility to meet different requirements and changes. And there is no need to worry about the organizational structure for these small companies because employees in this kind of organization often afford many responsibilities and have multiple functions. For example, in this company the product manager may also have the position as the manager in marketing department in charge of the marketing research and advertising campaign. So for this small scale company, the organizational structure is relatively simply and obvious, it is easy for leaders and manages to manage it into a correct direction. (Jones 2007)

3.1.2.2 Communication effectiveness

Jones (2007) pointed out that the other importance of organizational structure is its assistance for communication, which enable organizational leader to distribute authority. For example, staffs in marketing will discuss and get direction from their direct boss. And in turn, the direct boss may discuss these important issues with the upper management and get directions, too. That is to say, a suitable organization structure may assist employees in an organization work with a clear direction.

3.1.2.3 Evaluation and monitoring on employees’ performance

Evans (2005) advocated that organizational structure is also important for leaders to evaluate and monitor the performance of their subordinates. For example, these linear functional structure and product structure in organizations enable supervisors to have a better evaluation as well as monitor on the employees’ performance including how employees demonstrate their skills, how they get on with their peers, and the timeliness for them to accomplish their tasks and so on. And with these evaluations on employees’ performance, leaders can modify their operation strategy and give proper training courses and directions for these need improvement.

3.1.3 Suggestions

Since we have noticed the importance of organizational structure, we suggest Norton paying great attention on the establishment of a suitable organizational structure. And according to the case information, we may get a general outline of the organizational chart of Creative Airline as we demonstrate in figure 2.0.

Figure 2.0 The current organizational chart for Creative Airline

figure 2.0

From figure 2.0 we can get that the organizational structure of Creative Airline may belong to a flat one which had a few layers and may be too simple. For example, in the top management there are seemed a lack of proper position allocated, since the president resign his job, there was no refill to this vacancy. And in the middle management, there were few experienced and skillful managerial staff but a relative large number of new appointed managers nominated from ordinary employees. Although we have to admit the importance and necessity for leaders to promote these potential and excellent employees into the management roles, the improper distribute authority may also arouse problems.

In short, the organizational structure in Creative Airline was almost the same as its begging time, during which there were only small number of employees and three aircrafts. But in the latter development, there were more than 3000 employees and many aircrafts covering more than 20 cities, the organizational stature had little change. That’s why many managers complained the great pressure from huge workload and the decision making process were so time consuming, because such kind of organizational structure may be more fit for an small scale organization as the begging time of Creative Airline but no the latter development time during which Creative Airline was a large company requiring more complicated a well designed organizational structure (Jones 2007).

And to assist Norton to lead his company more successful, we suggest a new organizational structure for Creative Airline as figure 3.0, including there are a increasing number for the supportive managerial roles which are according to the actual situation of Creative Airline that the lack of managerial roles led to overburden of management works and time consuming to make decisions. And according to development of this company, we also add some new positions such as commercial officers, finical officers, marketing officers and flight officers to regulate and standardize the task distribution in Creative Airline and make full use of every employees potential to create the successful story of Creative Airline once more. (Evans 2005; Jones 2007)

Figure 3.0 A new organizational structure for Creative Airline

figure 3.0

 

3.2 Organizational culture and suggestion

3.2.1 Definition

Kefela (2010) and Daft (2010) defined the organizational culture as the set of key values, beliefs, understandings and norms that members in an organization shared with each other. And as the leadership is so important to codify and maintain the target, values and vision of an organization, it is necessary for leaders to set up the examples via the assistance of the cultural elements including values, actions, behaviors, measures and so on.

And organizational cultures have the context more than only slogans as well as some empty promises. And due to the importance of organizational culture there are many multinational companies such as GM, IBM, Sears and so on emphasizing to develop organization by deal with cultural and behavioral barriers to change with a well formulated organizational culture to assist them (Nadi 2008).

3.2.2 Culture’s functions

3.2.2.1 Shaping a course of action for the future

Organizational culture has many positive functions or organization to develop. At first, organizational culture assist leaders to shape a course of action for the future development. One of the most important obligations for the strategic leadership is to establish and maintain the characteristics for the organization which speaks highly and promote collective efforts, most basic of which is the establishment of proper organizational culture (Tesluk, Hofmann & Quigley 2002).

And Tesluk, Hofmann and Quigley (2002) held the idea that culture often has the characteristics of long term, strategic and difficult for the organization to change, which always roots in a shared value, belief and vision in an organization. As these shared value, belief and vision often work as the lamp to light up the path and affect the behavior of organizational members, the organizational culture can assist organizational employees to find out the meanings and purpose of their work and align their personal efforts to contribute to the entire company.

3.2.2.2 Working as a key for team building

There may be often many suggestions for leaders to understand the direction of the work in their organizations to laid a focus on the work nature and set it in the minds of employees by both horizontal and vertical communicating to make team members get training, in which the team building is a core element inside the procedure (Nadi 2008).

And many researches towards the organizational culture possessed ambient stimuli to support team members to demonstrate the cultural values and culture shaped behaviors in their organization. Especially in the business world, organizational culture such as Dell’s organizational culture often work as a stimuli to promote employees’ developing achievement in their individual working role perceptions (Nadi 2008). That’s why different organizational culture creates different manners of working role perception and responding behaviors of their employees.

3.2.2.3 Providing a common purpose

Chatman and Chav (2003) noted organizational culture plays the role as a framework held in employees minds in an organization which includes both basic assumptions, beliefs, visions, values and education to new members how to perceive, feel, make up decisions and behave. In another word, organizational culture direct organizational members’ actions without too much involvement of detailed instruction and long organization meetings. In effect, organizational culture often offers employees in an organization with a common context and goals. Meanwhile, these chosen values, beliefs, visions inside the proper organizational culture often help employees to shape their attitudes, behaviors what they expected, promote their performance and take action to achieve the desired effects for their organization.

3.2.3 Suggestions

As organizational culture is emphasized so much by organizations, considering the situation of Creative Airline in this case, we recommend Norton to establish and maintain a fitful organizational culture for his company to be a more successful leader.

At first, according to Daft (2010) there are many types of organizational culture which function differently. Considering the situation of the airline business, the environment changes so frequently, we suggestion Norton to build up a relatively flexible organizational culture which is both adaptability to the external environment and involvement to the internal.

Figure 4.0 The types of organizational culture

figure 4.0

 

Source: Daft, R.L.2010, New era of management, 9th edn, South-Western, Ohio,

In figure 4.0, the organizational culture possesses the characteristic of flexibility is made up of the combination of adaptability culture and involvement culture. The adaptability culture refers to the culture characterized by values supporting the company’s ability to interpret and translate environmental signals into new behavior responses (Daft 2010). In Creative Airline, we can observe that there were two kinds of extreme situation in this company that in the beginning it enjoyed a fast development and success and in the latter period, it still had a rapid developing speed but a bad performance. It may be relatively obvious that the old visions and belief may not so appropriate and useful for Creative Airline to regain its previous glory. There evidences such as the low cost ticket strategy couldn’t so suitable to Creative Airline used as a long term strategies compared with these big airline firms with strong economic strength and customers preference changing timely and so on all required Creative Airline to establish a adaptable culture to lead this organization to be alert to the environment change.

Moreover, in the inside operation of Creative Airline, we can get that there was a over dominate leadership behaviors formed in the latter developing process of Creative Airline that nobody dared to offend Norton and show opposite ideas towards Norton’s’ decision, which became one of the stumbling block for Creative Airline to regain its glory. Based on these evidences inside the organization, we suggest Norton to establish a flexible culture with characteristic of involvement that emphasizes an internal focus on the involvement and participation of employees to adapt fast to the changing needs from the environment (Daft 2010). With the establish of such a kind of involvement culture, the communication including upward communication, downward communication and horizontal communication in Creative Airline may be re-focus and improved to largely improve the communication effectives and shorten down the time spent to remove misunderstanding by the assistance of a high level of employees’ participation (Daft 2010).

By and large, with this flexible culture establish, Norton acted more flexibly to lead his organization to work alert and sensitive to the environment change with the assistance of a full involvement of employees in the company’s development. These shared values, beliefs and visions are so flexible which can help employees to shape some flexible behaviors and performance to work more purposely and correctly (Nadi 2008).

3.3 Organizational power and suggestions

3.3.1 Definition and functions

O’Regan and Ghobadian (2004) as well as Daft (2010) defined the organizational power as the potential ability to impact the behaviors of others, which results from an interaction between organizational leaders and their followers. And Steensma and Milligen (2003) also pointed out the relationship between power and leadership in an organization. The power for a leader is a pervasive reality in the developing procedures of an organization, in which leaders take advantage of their power to achieve organizational targets and strengthen their positions. And it is common to notice the actions and relationships in an organization involving with an exercise of power. And in the context of power, leadership is often defined as the process to use power to gain interpersonal influence. And to obtain the organizational success, it is important for leaders to well manage its power to give positive influence on the behavior of employees.

In figure 5.0, we can find the strong power base for a leader often begins with an individual power including his position power and personal sources. And the key for a leader to manage his or her power to influence other is how this leader transforms its power to development effective strategies minimize resistance and optimize the potential of employees (Morse 2008).

Figure 5.0 Power base for leaders

figure 5.0

Source: Kotter, J.P. 1983, Power and Influence beyond formal authority, Free Press, New York,

3.3.2 Suggestions

In the above, we have discussed the importance of leaders’ power to influence and direct the proper behaviors of employees to accomplish organizational objectives and success. And referring to the actual practices of Creative Airline, we can see in the latter period, the power of Norton as the leader of this company may be abused which become so arbitrary and a tool to strengthening the absolute dominant position of Norton in Creative Airline instead of promoting effective developing strategies and encouraging creative behaviors from employees. Based on this situation, we suggest Norton to take the many elements into consideration and make necessary as well as suitable modification in transforming his power to a more positive direction.

3.3.2.1 In the position power aspect

In the leadership position power field, we advise Norton to focus on the five factors such as centrality, criticality, flexibility, visibility and related stimulate power with properly horizontal expansion and maneuvering. For example, Norton had better enrich the job content of him via removing some rigid activities and increasing the variety of the tasks to enhance the involvement of employees in decision making and strategy execution. And meanwhile it is also suggested for Norton to improve the visibility and transparency of decision making and execution to act open enough as the previous time as the participate leader to make the communication inside Creative Airline keeping a high transparency. (O’Regan & Ghobadian 2004)

3.3.2.2 Transforming power

When transforming power to influence employees, we suggest the proper distribution of authority with the assistance of the new organizational structure offered by us above to make each position in the organization have a full involvement in their job and have a crystal clear understanding of what they should do and how they should behave to accomplish organizational goals (Morse 2008).

By and large, to make full use of the organizational structure, culture and power for Norton to become more successful to lead his organization, one of the determinants should be the self evaluation and introspection of Norton on what the pros and cons of his leadership, and then he can depend on these suggested tools to assist the right development of Creative Airline.

Reference

Baehr, P. 2008, Caesarism, charisma, and fate: historical sources and modern resonances in the work of Max Weber, Transaction Publishers, New Jersey,

Chatman, J.A. & Cha, S.E. 2003, Leading by leveraging culture, California Management Review, vol.45, no. 4,

Chung, A., Chen, I.H. & Lee, A.Y.P. 2011, Charismatic leadership and self-leadership: A relationship of substitution or supplementation in the contexts of internalization and identification, Journal of Organizational Change Management, issue 0953-4814,

Cicero, L. 2007, Charismatic leadership and organizational outcomes: The mediating role of employees’ work‐group identification, International Journal of Psychology,

Daft, R.L.2010, New era of management, 9th edn, South-Western, Ohio,

Dutta, S. 2009, Consumer responses to offline and online low price signal: The role of cognitive elaboration, Journal of Business Research, vol. 62, Issue. 6, pp. 629-635,

Evans, W.R. 2005, High-performance work systems and organizational performance: The mediating role of internal social structure, Journal of Management,

Fairholm, G.W. 2009, Organizational power politics: tactics in organizational leadership, Greenwood Publish Group, San Francisco,

Hughes, R.L., Ginnett, R.C. & Curphy, G.J. 2006, Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience, 5th edn, McGraw-Hill, New York,

Jones, G.R. 2007, Organizational theory, design, and changes, 5th edn, Pearson, New Jersey,

Kefela, G.T. 2010, Understanding organizational culture and leadership-Enhance efficiency and productivity, electronic version, PM World Today, vol. XII, issue I, viewed 29 November 2011,

Khoo, H.S. 2008, The dark side of leadership personality and transformational leadership: An exploratory study, Personality and individual differences, vol. 44, Issue 1, pp. 86-97

Kumar, C. 2007, The Leadership in management: Understanding leadership wisdom, A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi,

Morse, M.K. 2008, Making room for leadership: Power, space and influence, Accessible Publishing System PTY, Ltd., n.p.

Moyers, T.B. & Miller, W.R. 2005, How does motivational interviewing work? Therapist interpersonal skill predicts client involvement within motivational interviewing sessions, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 73,

Mumford, M.D.,Antes, A.L.& Caughron, J.J. 2008, Charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic leadership: Multi-level influences on emergence and performance, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 19, Issue 2, pp.144-160,

Nadi, F.E. 2008, Reflections on management and Human Resources aspects based on both academic and field experience, Basic Books, New York,

Rahman, M. M. & Kumaraswamy, M. M. 2008, Relational contracting and teambuilding: assessing potential contractual and non-contractual incentives, Journal of Management in Engineering, vol. 24,

O’Regan , N. & Ghobadian , A. 2004, Leadership and strategy: Making it happen, Journal of General Management, vol. 29, no. 3,

Steensma, H., & Milligen, F. V. 2003, Bases of power, procedural justice and outcomes of mergers: The push and pull factors of influence tactics, Journal of Collective Negotiations, vol. 30, no. 2 , pp.113–134,

Tesluk, P., Hofmann, D. & Quigley, N. 2002, Integrating the linkages between organizational culture and individual outcomes at work, John Wiley & Sons, Milton,

Wang, E. & Chou, H.W. 2005, The impacts of charismatic leadership style on team cohesiveness and overall performance during ERP implementation, International Journal of Project Management, vol. 23, Issue 3, pp. 173-180,

Yang, K. 2009, Examining perceived honest performance reporting by public organizations: Bureaucratic politics and organizational practice, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, vol.19, Issue.1, pp. 81-105.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.