1.0 Introduction 2
2.0 Oriental Cambridge Group 2
2.1 Brief introduction 2
2.2 The Congruence Model 2
2.3 Diagnosis 2
2.3.1 Identifying symptoms 2
2.3.2 Specifying input 2
2.3.3 Identify output 2
2.3.4 Problems 2
3.0 Downsizing 2
3.1 Concept 2
3.2 Reasons 2
3.3 Risks and challenges 2
3.3.1 Individual level risk 2
3.3.2 Financial risks 2
3.3.3 Bad influence on employer brand 2
3.4 Means to reduce risks 2
3.4.1 Clarification 2
3.4.2 Assessment and choices 2
3.4.3 Implementation 2
3.4.4 Remitting stress from survivors and those who leave 2
4.0 Interventions 2
4.1 The definition on organizational interventions 2
4.2 Intervention means and costs 2
4.2.1 Interpersonal interventions, costs and advantages 2
4.2.2 Group interventions 2
4.2.3 Intergroup interventions 2
4.3 Organizational wide intervention approach 2
4.3.1 Cross training 2
4.3.2 Lowering wages 2
4.3.3 Attrition 2
5.0 Political issues 2
5.1 Definition 2
5.2 Issues 2
5.2.1 Starting rumors or distorting facts 2
5.2.2 Malicious compliance 2
5.2.3 Collective job hopping 2
5.3 Approaches maximizing effectiveness 2
5.3.1 Three steps approach 2
5.3.2 Education and agreement 2
5.3.3 Manipulation & cooperation 2
5.3.4 Change leadership 2
6.0 Conclusion 2
7.0 Reference 2
Chart 1 Organizational structure of Oriental Cambridge Group………………………5
Chart 2 Nadler and Tushman’s Congruence Model……..…………………………….6
Chart 3 Management structure of Oriental Cambridge Group’s college………….…..8
Oriental Cambridge Group has become one of the most comprehensive and advanced academically education group, which was founded by Mr. Yu Songling in 1998 (Oriental Cambridge Group 2012).
In the report, four aspects will be investigated to examine its organizational effectiveness and needs for change, including organizational key characteristics, downsizing, organization-wide interventions and political issues.
Under this report, Oriental Cambridge Group is expected to gain a more successful development road in the near future.
2.0 Oriental Cambridge Group
2.1 Brief introduction
Oriental Cambridge Group was founded in 1998, which has become one of the most comprehensive and advanced academically education group. Mr. Yu Songling is the founder and CEO of this group and at the same time he is also the tutor of MBA students in Peking University (Oriental Cambridge Group 2012).
The headquarter of Oriental Cambridge Group is located in Beijing, which possesses more than ￥1.5 billion capital. And in the year 2011, its outstanding performance has won the reputation of the most responsible education group(Oriental Cambridge Group 2012).
The Oriental Cambridge is located in Haerbin of China, taking up more than 520,000 acres, which owns seven secondary colleges, three academic departments, one preschool education department and one international communication department with more than degree majors, 9100 students and 505 full time teachers, 191 of whom own the title of associate professor or above ( referring to chart 1). (Oriental Cambridge Group 2012)
Chart 1 Organizational structure of Oriental Cambridge Group
Learn as effective and more as you can with the support of great ambition (Oriental Cambridge Group 2012).
To an excellent education brand with great reputation to support China to gain more high quality talents with international standard (Oriental Cambridge Group 2012)
2.2 The Congruence Model
Johnson, Scholes and Whittington (2005) stated the congruence model comprising four components: task including the special work or activities which have to be implemented, individuals including the knowledge, skills, requirements and expectations for people in an organization, formal organizational arrangements including structure, processes and methods and informal organization including implicit, unstated values, beliefs and behaviors, which can be referred in chart 2.
Chart 2 Nadler and Tushman’s Congruence Model
On the ground of this model, we’ll examine Oriental Cambridge’s current operation status and diagnose its problems.
In this diagnosis part, we will diagnose Oriental Cambridge from many facets: identifying the symptoms, specifying input, indentifying output, to conclude its problems (Nadler & Tushman 1998).
2.3.1 Identifying symptoms
In the college of Oriental Cambridge Group, there are many phenomena, which may be somewhat abnormal.
Primarily, in the management teams of Oriental Cambridge Group’s college, the overstaff situation becomes more and more obvious. This situation is mostly rooting from the family business operation manner of Oriental Cambridge Group. Now, let’s refer to the management structure of Oriental Cambridge Group’s college in chart 3.
Chart 3 Management structure of Oriental Cambridge Group’s college
Source: Oriental Cambridge Group (2012), About us, jqu.net,
Referring to the management level structure in Oriental Cambridge Group’s college from chart 3, we can find out there are so many relatives of this family operated education group taking up vital position such as the relationship of the CEO and president is father and son, the general service director is the sister of the CEO, financial director is the brother in law of the CEO, the director of international division is the close friend of the CEO. Besides the upper level management positions, more than 50% of the middle management or primary level management positions are taken up by the friends or relatives of the CEO’s family.
And the most important issue is that due to so close a relationship of some management employees in Oriental Cambridge College with the family of the CEO, their positions in this college are more like some ornaments than the necessary elements for this group. And worse still some employees take the advantage of the close relationship with the CEO’s family to obtain personal profit but not to work for the entire group.
In brief, most of these positions taken by these friends and relatives of the CEO’s family are meaningless and ineffective, which generate less outputs than the amount of inputs.
2.3.2 Specifying input
The outside environment surrounding Oriental Cambridge Group’s college is full of competition. There are so many private universities in China, which possess the same or even greater competitive force. In conclusion, environment for Oriental Cambridge is full of press.
Most of the resources for Oriental Cambridge Group, such as necessary capital are collected almost by the CEO’s family. The teaching resources, teachers group for instance are made up of full time teachers and part time teachers. More exactly, full time teachers are almost young people, which graduate from the postgraduates only two or three years with insufficient teaching experiences and knowledge. Part time teachers are often professors or experts of a certain teaching area in these subjects offered by Oriental Cambridge Group.
Although part time teachers are all experts, the teaching results generated these teachers some time even can’t compete with some full time teachers who are so fresh in the college teaching field. One of the reasons for this result is because these part time teachers, experts or professors, are too busy, who often own their part time jobs and have little time or no time to devote to the teaching affairs in Oriental Cambridge College.
One of the major strategies taken by Oriental Cambridge College is to employ many part time teachers to make up for the absence of senior level teaching staffs which are the necessity for a college’s survival.
The other strategy taken by Oriental Cambridge College is to develop the business mainly in Northern part of China other than the total region of China.
2.3.3 Identify output
The intended organizational outputs of Oriental Cambridge Group are to build a satisfactory reputation as a higher education provider among Chinese people. With efforts of every member in this group, Oriental Cambridge Group plans to make more contributions to the society such as the contribution of excellent teaching groups, the contribution of high qualified elites and so on.
Contrast to the pink dream of Oriental Cambridge Group, the output actually occurring isn’t so expected. For one side, imbalance between the number of full time teachers and part time teachers give full time teachers too limited space to develop them as matured and qualified college teachers. For the other side, too many family members come in Oriental Cambridge Group to work cause too many obstacles for Oriental Cambridge Group to operate its education business.
In a summary, the gap between the intended and actual outputs is large.
184.108.40.206 Overstaff in college management
First and foremost, Oriental Cambridge Group encounters problem of overstaff in management team. Overuse the family members and relatives may be the most obvious characteristics of Chinese family business, whose drawbacks will be more and more obvious when the organization develops into bigger and bigger size (Chen 2004). Chen (2004) stated clearly that family members or relatives may be the most trustworthy and helpful body for the Chinese family business to found and develop at the beginning time, the over-close relationship and network may result in the failure of this kind of business in the end, because such kind of close relationship may the people management issue being a tough task for the manager or leader to give upright and fair judgment on some bad behaviors or activities made by these members.
This comment is correct for Oriental Cambridge Group as well. At its beginning, these family members had contributed a great deal to Oriental Cambridge Group’s foundation and development from many aspects including capital generating, people support and so on. While with much bigger size of Oriental Cambridge, the drawbacks of the family own business become obviously the same as the statement from Chen (2004).
220.127.116.11 Imbalance between number of full time teachers and part time teachers
Imbalance of full time teachers’ number and part time teachers’ number is defined as a problem as well. On one side, taking advantage of the great reputation of those part time teachers who are either experts or professors in a certain academic area can enhance Oriental Cambridge Group’s popularity as the high education provider of China. On the other side, over focusing on their function and ignoring the development of full time teachers might lead to dysfunction of the actual academic team — full time teachers. By and large, the development of any organization should depend on contributions and efforts of full time employees and the function of part time employees may only work as the means to add brilliance to its present splendor (Evans 2005).
Therefore, over reliance on part time teachers function and contribution to Oriental Cambridge Group popularity and fame may not work in the long term, whose final reliance should be laid on full time employees — full time teachers.
Downsizing is a most common used statement referring to deducting size and costs in an organization, which mostly depended on deducting the employees’ total number namely layoff. When market is retrenched, many companies may resort to downsizing to save costs and gain larger survival space in the competition environment with other companies in their industry sectors (Fisher & White 2000).
Besides, Budros (1999) gave downsizing the definition as the permanent personnel reduction method with the attempt to enhance organizational efficiency or its effectiveness. And this characteristic of permanent personnel reduction adds the popularity of downsizing among many organizations nowadays.
Meanwhile, Freeman and Cameron (1993) specially pointed out downsizing doesn’t equate with layoffs. The major different between the two is that layoffs only concern with the analysis on individual level solely, but downsizing concerns with a wider concept applicable to a wider analysis level that only the individual level. Additionally, layoffs are defined as one of the operational mechanism for organizations to carry out downsizing strategy.
Reasons behind downsizing are mostly from economy aspect. With thorough consideration of Oriental Cambridge Group’s status, we believe downsizing can solve its problems in the most effective pattern.
First and foremost, overstaff problems in management of Oriental Cambridge Group need solution badly. Downsizing is the most effective way to solve it. And the most common mechanism of downsizing is layoff, which is the suggestion for Oriental Cambridge Group. In the first place, layoff some employees who take up the position and cost a great deal of salary expense from Oriental Cambridge Group but make the least contributions is the first step (Drew 1994). In the second place, these kinds of employees are almost members or relatives of the CEO’s family. In other word, these employees will be laid off by Oriental Cambridge group mostly belong to family members of the CEO.
Additionally, by dismissing these employees who work least and gain the most will save such a great sum of money for Oriental Cambridge Group. And these savings can then be invested to many developing aspects. For instance, savings gained from downsizing can be invested into development of professional skills for full time employees such as full time teachers to develop them as experts or professors in these important academic fields needed badly by Oriental Cambridge Group (Spreitzer & Mishra 2002).
Besides, reduction part time teachers’ number by downsizing gradually will offer more space and room for full time employees’ development and the sense of belonging of full time workers (Drew 1994). As a matter of fact, from our survey in Oriental Cambridge College, one dilemma for it is how to improve cohesion of people in this origination. And one reason for the low cohesive force in Oriental Cambridge Group is for the over focus on part time teachers’ contribution while ignoring contributions from full time employees— full time teachers. Just due to the ignorance, full time employees such as teachers feel the low level of belonging sense which reduces their working passion and even their performance.
In a summary, tightening up the number of management employees and part time teachers will back up Oriental Cambridge Group to save money, gain stronger cohesive force and greater developing potential from its full time employees.
3.3 Risks and challenges
3.3.1 Individual level risk
One of the biggest challenges for Oriental Cambridge Group from downsizing is resistance from employees mostly from management employees. According to our proposal, downsizing is also regarded as negative by some people. First and foremost, downsizing may be blamed for the negative productivity and employee consequences (Cascio & Wynn 2004).
For example, a research shows the survey results on downsizing from more than 1,005 companies that use downsizing for the purpose of reducing costs. But from this survey, it implies the rather native results from downsizing. In the first place, less than half of these companies using downsizing have meet their target of reducing costs. In the second place, merely less than 22% companies have met their expected productivity rate and 80% of these companies have to rehire the original employees who are once fired by these companies (Cummings & Worley 2009). In terms of profit objectives, this survey shows only 21% companies gained the expected results, which implies about 79% or so companies failed to gain satisfactory results from downsizing. And the result from another survey shows many problems brought about by downsizing from individual level including increased stress for employees, illness, reducing level of self esteem, loss of trust, loyalty and other disruptions.
All in all, downsizing will reduce working passion, loyalty, trust and relationships between employees and their companies. the risks in this level — individual level from downsizing is to block companies future development because of low productivity from employees (Cascio & Wynn 2004).
3.3.2 Financial risks
In terms of research results on downsizing, the financial performances of companies also have negative consequences. In the first place, the financial consequences of some companies have increasing results in the first year, but it can’t last even in the following years. This negative consequence in finance warns Oriental Cambridge the financial risks of downsizing, which have to be faced (Tourish et al. 2004).
3.3.3 Bad influence on employer brand
The panic and tense aroused by downsizing in Oriental Cambridge College, which generates bad influence on the image of Oriental Cambridge College as a good employer. In another word, the risk is image damage. In the first place, the bad brand image as an employer will block Oriental Cambridge College’s future talents recruitment plan and make many potential candidates hesitate to choose to work in Oriental Cambridge because downsizing may make people feel unsafe to work at this group (Mohyeldin & Suliman 2006).
In the second place, in the current time, overstaff is the headache but in the future talents shortage may be the major issue for Oriental Cambridge to handle if the employer’s image is destroyed to a large scale by downsizing.
3.4 Means to reduce risks
We summarize many steps to reduce risks generated by downsizing for Oriental Cambridge Group on the proposal from (Cummings & Worley 2009).
The first necessary step to support Oriental Cambridge Group to gain benefits instead of risks from downsizing is to clarify its organizational strategy and communicate the relationship between downsizing and this strategy specifically (Buss 2003). The purpose of clarification is to clarify downsizing strategy isn’t a single issue to merely achieve the single goal but work as the process of restructure to achieve strategic goals. At the same time, consistent support with visible specialty during the whole process ought to be offered by leaders of Oriental Cambridge Group. To gain more support and reduce objections from employees, leaders can give more opportunities for employees to speak out their perspectives, come up with their doubts and gain counseling from Oriental Cambridge group is there is need (Buss 2003).
3.4.2 Assessment and choices
There are many downsizing methods here for Oriental Cambridge Group to choose: e.g. reduction of workforce — layoffs, organization restructure and strategic change. And each approach may own the requirements on environment and other points. For example, layoffs are aimed to reduce employees’ number to improve working efficiency and performance (Cummings & Worley 2009). Organizational restructure is to redesign this organization to prepare it for the next development and growth, which belongs to middle term approach. Strategic change is the long term approach to change organizational culture and orientation to alter obligations and behaviors of work inside an organization, which belongs to long term options.
In terms of these specialties from the three approaches of downsizing, Oriental Cambridge ought to take all of its environment elements, people factor, time value, location elements into account to find out the most fitful approach to management Oriental Cambridge Group’s problems (Nienstedt 1999). It enables Oriental Cambridge Group to retain its reputation, productivity, employees’ loyalty to a large scale with the lowest cost.
During implementation stage, there are several practices characterizing downsizings successful. In Oriental Cambridge Group, four successful practices support it to reduce risks. First and foremost, Oriental Cambridge Group ought to control downsizing practice from top down with the support of a broader perspective aimed to conquer many uncertainties and risks (Gilson & Wagar 2004). Second, Oriental Cambridge Group ought to indentify these issues specified including issues with high cost and inefficient consequences to avoid hurting working morale due to misunderstanding (Gilson & Wagar 2004). Third, continuous clarification on the purpose of downsizing in Oriental Cambridge Group should be kept on during the whole process to make employees understand that downsizing is the approach for this college to improve its performance and profitability other than hurt employees (Gilson & Wagar 2004).
Keeping on claiming the aim and advantages of downsizing during the implementation process are crucial to remove misunderstanding and negative mood in Oriental Cambridge Group.
3.4.4 Remitting stress from survivors and those who leave
Oriental Cambridge Group ought to show their concerns on survivors and those who leave with communication process to improve the quality of communication in downsizing process from explanation on the reasons for who will leave and who will stay to clarify the future direction that companies will go. As the relation between employees’ performance and success of the company is closely linked to these survivors from downsizing, upper management in Oriental Cambridge Group should show their concerns on these survivors to highlight their value in Oriental Cambridge’s future. Besides, occupational training and developing programs should be designed into plans to remove risks from downsizing and improve employees’ self esteem, which may be decreased by downsizing (Cummings & Worley 2009).
4.1 The definition on organizational interventions
Beer (2011) defined organizational intervention are means to emphasize improvement on organizational members’ working environment, safety as well as wellbeing. Nielsen, Randall & Albertsen (2007) defined organizational interventions as the means to change the work design and management in the organization.
Ivancevich and Michael (2008) spoke highly of organizational intervention. In the first place, organizational interventions stand for programs or plans consist of specific designed activities to influence change in some aspect of the organization. Numerous interventions are used in organizations to be developed for so many years to address various problems and create different consequences. Consequently, there are all geared to the objective of improving the entire company by change.
4.2 Intervention means and costs
In general, companies or organizations which plan to reach the high level of organizational change and create high valuable consequences will often use a various range of interventions such as these designed approaches to change behaviors or attitudes of individual employees, teams or groups (Ivancevich & Michael 2008).
4.2.1 Interpersonal interventions, costs and advantages
Interpersonal interventions in organizational development process are geared towards improvement of employees’ skills, knowledge and productivity. These kinds of interventions often help employees to develop awareness and behavior patterns with their working partners. And they are also helpful to identify employees’ true needs, career goals and resolve conflicts sometimes (Ivancevich & Michael 2008).
On the contrary to these benefits, interpersonal interventions demand costs too. For example, as intergroup interventions sometime support group members to meet some certain objectives within a certain time length, which increase employees’ stress. And although purpose of interpersonal interventions is to resolve conflicts, great pressure from these interventions may bring about disputes and other kinds of conflicts, which cost companies (e.g. Oriental Cambridge Group) maybe more time and resources to settle smoothly (Ivancevich & Michael 2008).
4.2.2 Group interventions
Ivancevich and Michael (2008) gave group interventions high mark, which is to give teams or groups more developing space to improve effectiveness. As high requirements of the group interventions on communication effectiveness, balance on group needs and personal needs, and healthy function of each mechanism inside the groups and teams, the success of group interventions will support teams to develop communication quality, balance of different needs and healthy development.
And on the contrary, so strict and high expectations on the group or team quality may also decrease the performance and block good achievements of these teams, if these teams can’t meet the quality needs required from the interventions.
In general, costs from the group interventions also high. In the first place, to reach group interventions’ requirements, Oriental Cambridge Group has to do so many things such as improving team or group quality and communication quality, balancing needs, which also need investment (Ivancevich & Michael 2008).
4.2.3 Intergroup interventions
These interventions are to facilitate collaboration and cooperation between different groups or teams inside an organization inside the company (Ivancevich & Michael 2008). In Oriental Cambridge Group, intergroup interventions may improve the cooperation effectiveness and quality of different groups within the groups or teams.
On the contrary, departmental interaction sometimes deteriorate relationships between different teams or groups as for there are often different ideas from different teams, if management of Oriental Cambridge can’t settle their disputes. In the end, what Oriental Cambridge Group has to afford will be not only time, resources but also the loss of talents (Ivancevich & Michael 2008).
4.3 Organizational wide intervention approach
Above, we have discussed downsizing interventions; other alternatives of organizational wide intervention approach will be introduced and evaluated as below.
4.3.1 Cross training
Zaptin (2004) propose organizations to give employees more chances instead of directly fired. Cross training is such kind of organizational wide intervention which is to link the skill mix of employees at the current time with the expected or anticipated skills necessary in the future. In another word, Oriental Cambridge Group should also give some of its people the chance to enrich their skill mix to make their employment gainful and valuable. To compete for the future, Zaptin (2004) suggest businesses like Oriental Cambridge Group should identify the core competitiveness to develop its strategies on employee development and career building such as for full time teachers’ career development plan in Oriental Cambridge Group, which will match the needs of this organization.
4.3.2 Lowering wages
To avoid too radical actions from the people who will be fired, which are mostly family members or relatives of the CEO for Oriental Cambridge Group, wage reduction intervention will be a choice (Piderit 2000). For these people who work less but gain more, it is rational to lower their wages or executive compensation. And if there are some resistances from people whose salary are reduced, explanation should be given to clarify this intervention is so milder and thoughtful than layoffs.
This intervention may receive less resistance than layoffs.
Attrition in organizational intervention technique as well, which is to wait employees to retire or level automatically (Piderit 2000). There are two ways for Oriental Cambridge Group to make an option: natural attrition and voluntary early retirement.
The first option works when turnover rate is high. In Oriental Cambridge Group, it isn’t the same situation (Piderit 2000). In another word, this type isn’t suitable for Oriental Cambridge Group to use.
The other option is to offer the chance of voluntary early retirement chances for these employees who work less while earn the most in Oriental Cambridge Group with retirement packages to make them voluntary leave (Piderit 2000). In fact, these people who are regarded to be the ones who should leave are mostly family members or relatives of the CEO, to remove their resentment, some rational retirement packages including some material benefits should be given to retain their good relationship with the CEO family and give Oriental Cambridge Group more space to manage its people in the future without too many blocks due to the special relationship.
Overall, either downsizing intervention or other alternatives of Organization-wide interventions are to help Oriental Cambridge Group to settle existing problems with small cost.
5.0 Political issues
Cummings and Worley (2009) stated there are three sources for organization resistance such as technical resistance, political resistance and cultural resistance. In this section, we will mainly discuss the political resistance — political issues in Oriental Cambridge Group as reactions to organizational change, e.g. downsizing.
Political issue or resistance will rise in Oriental Cambridge Group when the changes such as downsizing threaten the power or right of stakeholders, employees’ right or interest.
Lewis (2002) gave many examples of political resistance or political issues in organizational changing time, from which we find out some possible political issues maybe faced by Oriental Cambridge Group.
5.2.1 Starting rumors or distorting facts
Some people in Oriental Cambridge Group may start rumors such as who will be fired or delivering unreal information with distorted facts to give rise to panic among employees (Cummings & Wilson 2003). In the first place, rumors will result in panic among employees in Oriental Cambridge Group. Some sensitive employees may not want to wait for the truth to be revealed but choose to resign their positions. If this situation becomes worse, nobody will be so calm and sane to work peacefully. When this phenomenon becomes more and more common, the sense of belonging of people in Oriental Cambridge Group will be broken completely. When losing people’s hearts and approval, how can Oriental Cambridge Group pursue future development and achievements?
In the second place, when teachers who are the most direct people facing “customers” of Oriental Cambridge Group (the students of Oriental Cambridge Group) performance in a native way due to the bad effects from these rumors or distorted facts, the reputation of Oriental Cambridge Group as the good higher education provider may be ruined in only one day (Cummings & Wilson 2003).
5.2.2 Malicious compliance
On the contrary to this direct and obvious political resistance, malicious compliance will be tougher for Oriental Cambridge Group to settle. Malicious compliance refers to verbal agreement while not following in the practice (Cummings & Wilson 2003). Supposing people in Oriental Cambridge Group all or most of them react like this, all of these tasks distributed by upper level management may be not executed and carried out effectively.
5.2.3 Collective job hopping
Every company or organization is afraid of high turnover rate of its employees. Job hopping or even collective job hopping will happen in Oriental Cambridge Group. Just think about what you will react to the news of fired or the rumor that you will be fired by your company, the most direct reaction may find the new job position. If most employees or even a few employees have such mind, others may be infected by them. And in the end, more and more employees will feel unsafe and try every means to find chances of new jobs, which has at least two kinds of consequences (Cummings & Wilson 2003). In the first place, some people may resign their jobs in Oriental Cambridge Group once they find new jobs, to avoid the misfortune of being fired by Oriental Cambridge Group. In the second place, other people will also be influenced following the trend of job hopping to finally end in collective job hopping.
Day by day, working morale, productivity, sense of belonging and other important qualities needed by Oriental Cambridge Group for its employees will fade away resulting in low productivity and achievement.
5.3 Approaches maximizing effectiveness
5.3.1 Three steps approach
First and foremost, Oriental Cambridge Group is designed to overcome political resistance by learning how people will react to the change when they are experiencing change. It requires Oriental Cambridge group to show and give a great deal of empathy and support to these who both survived from the downsizing and sacrificed in it (Cummings & Worley 2009).
In the second place, communication may help Oriental Cambridge Group to clear up uncertainties when downsizing is going on (Cummings & Worley 2009). Political resistance such as staring rumors or malicious compliance is lack of proper information and facts to make rumors or gossip spread around. Communication means such as counseling may be appropriate to clear up these rumors and untrue stories among employees and make them understand the meaning of downsizing and even support this activity which is aligned with its organizational strategies.
Additionally, participation and involvement is the third stage to remove political resistance of people in Oriental Cambridge Group (Cummings & Worley 2009). It is the oldest and effective approach to clear up resistance. Involving people in changes directly to give their ideas and opinions in designing and planning changes such as downsizing may improve their sense of belonging and responsibility and accept the meaningfulness of downsizing for their college, which is recommended to Oriental Cambridge Group.
5.3.2 Education and agreement
Educating employees about the purpose or objective, the benefits, requirement of the change with abundant and adequate information to clear up misunderstanding is crucial (Beer 2011).
In the meantime, offering incentives or other compensation means to people who suffer from the change such as downsizing, to reduce their anger and decrease the rate of political resistance (Beer 2011).
5.3.3 Manipulation & cooperation
Giving some employees their expected stuffs such as position or material things to buy support from them to use their power to impact others will be the approach to clear up political resistances in Oriental Cambridge Group (Beer 2011).
5.3.4 Change leadership
Agboola (2011) proposed changing leadership is also a key component for the success of a change when resistance occurs. And the most essential things which leaders can bring to the organization when experiencing a change are enthusiasm, confidence and belief for others. Oriental Cambridge Group will experience the change, which should be supported by the leadership.
At the pervious time, leaders in Oriental Cambridge Group is more like the leader who merely pursue the final results and neglect everything even ignoring the relationship building and maintaining with the employees. That is why the feeling of treating Oriental Cambridge Group as the home is low among employees, which is so danger when the change takes place.
To reduce the occurrence of political resistance in Oriental Cambridge Group, changing the conservative and task or result oriented leadership to more flexible and humanistic style will be more exact and promising way for it to make the change successful, which will improve working passion, belonging sense, responsibility sense and other positive and healthy quality among employee groups or teams in Oriental Cambridge Group (Agboola 2011).
With investigation into organizational effectiveness and organizational change in Oriental Cambridge Group in China, we developed four conclusions.
First, Oriental Cambridge Group is a promising organization in high education industry of China, which also has its problems.
Second, downsizing is a common and the fastest way to save cost, while it has its disadvantages too. The problems in Oriental Cambridge Group can be solved by downsizing with some appropriate means to remove resistance and risks.
Third, organizational wide interventions are necessary for Oriental Cambridge Group to strengthen its ability with a variety of advantages. There are some alternatives to make the change more successful too.
Fourth, during organizational change, political resistance may take place. Oriental Cambridge Group is given some suggestions to remove the resistance.
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