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1. Introduction 2
2. Target market 2
3. Similarities and differences in product positioning and branding 2
4. Differences in ad execution 3
5. Objectives of the print ads 3
6. Execution style differences 4
7. Analysis of the tone of the ads 4
8. Conclusions 5
9. Recommendations to enhance the three ads 5
Appendix 1 Old Town While Coffee Print AD 7
Appendix 2 Nescafe 3in1 Coffee Print AD 8
Appendix 3 Ipoh White Coffee Print AD 9
Marketing Principles and Practices: Print ADs analysis: Nescafe, Ipoh & Old Town
In this study, we have selected three major brands of coffee which are the most famous three brands of coffee in Malaysia: Nescafe, Ipoh & Old Town. The print ads of the three ads are shown in the appendix (1, 2 & 3).
2. Target market
A target market typically refers to the geographic market which the advertisement is focused on (Kelley & Jugenheimer 2008, p.59). .In other words, a target market is the related to the target group or the target audience of the advertisement. As among the three print ads of Nescafe, Ipoh and Old Town, we can see that in a geographic perspective, these three print ads are all focusing on the Malaysian local market as we can see that all of them contain the characters of “Bahasa Malayu”. But there are still differences in the brand poisoning expressed in the ads which will be discussed below.
3. Similarities and differences in product positioning and branding
Brand positioning, as defined by Arens and Bovee (1994), is the way by which a product is ranked in the customers’ brain by the benefits that it provides and how it is differentiated from the competitors’ products. And brand positioning could be reached through a number of methods: link with a particular attribute such as strength, health, power or reliability, differences in price and quality, association with the class of users or the association with the competitors (Engel 1994, p.166). In the Nescafe’s print ad, the focus of the ad is to promote the company’s 3in1 coffee with smooth foam which is the first in Malaysia in the coffee mixes category to come topped with the so called as “a deliciously light and soft layer of smooth foam”. So Nescafe’s print ad is use the product’s special attribute, the smooth foam, to build up its brand positioning which is different from the competitors. And in the case of the Ipoh White Coffee, it is also using the same strategy as what Nescafe does which is to use the special attribute to build up its brand positioning but the difference is that Ipoh White Coffee is using the benefit “healthy coffee” of the product. Lastly, in the case of the Old Town White Coffee, it is using the association with the competitors which as seen from the ad that it is saying that it is Malaysia’s No.1 white coffee, and it build up its brand positioning by comparing with the other competitors. And this strategy is totally different from the previous two print ads which use the particular attributes of the products to position their respective products. In term of similarity of the three products in brand positioning, we can tell from the three ads that the three companies all promoting the messages that the products though with some special features are tasty and worth drinking by the customers.
4. Differences in ad execution
The underlying psychology of the three ads is direct. Nescafe tries to transmit that its new taste coffee is special without any competitors’’ product alike; Ipoh’s print ad psychology is also simple, it urges the customers to drink their coffee which is healthier and finer; and lastly Old Town tells the message that “we are the best seller” and should be your first choice”. In term of the selection between emotional appeals and rational, fact-based persuasion, it seems that all the three have used the emotional appeals to persuade customers to buy their products but Ipoh White also provides a fact-based appeal by telling the customer that how the coffee is made and what chemicals are in and not in the coffee.
5. Objectives of the print ads
The objectives of advertising based on the targets of the ads could be classified into: inform, persuade, remind and reinforce (Shah & D’Souza 2009, p.14) representing different business strategies. As in our three ads, Nescafe is designed to inform customers its new product has a new feature; Ipoh’s print ad uses the strategy of “remind” customers that drinking coffee should pay attention to the issue that coffee products need to be healthy beside good taste; and lastly Old Town White Coffee uses reinforce strategy to reinforce its leading position in the Malaysian market.
6. Execution style differences
Various execution styles of advertisement could be use which include scientific evidence, and testimonial evidence, slice of life, lifestyle, fantasy, mood or image and so on (Cant, Strydom & Jooste 2006, p.451). In term of the execution styles selection, Nescafe uses the style of fantasy to focus on the message that its product has a favor and new feature which is totally different from what the Malaysian customers have ever had in the past; and such fantasy style is reinforced by the star’s pose to give out the coffee. Ipoh is using the lifestyle to create a normal life style and healthy life style that the “healthier” Ipoh White Coffee” could bring to the customers in their daily life. And Old Town White Coffee is using image, the thumb up image, to reinforce that the Old Town White Coffee is the NO.1 in Malaysian market.
7. Analysis of the tone of the ads
The tone of an ad could contribute greatly to the effective communication of the message (Pezzullo 1998, p.241), there a number of tones such as positive, humorous, warm and fuzzy, factual, and technical. As in our selected pint ad, Old Town White Coffee is using positive way to demonstrate to the customers they are producing the best selling and most popular coffee in the Malaysian market; Ipoh’s print ad uses the tone of warm to remind the customer of their healthier coffee which is more closed to life and the tone is warm which is in accordance with the theme of the print ad with a reminder to the customers about a healthier coffee drinking. And last, Nescafe is using a humor tone in its print ad. As it says in the ad that “It’s like a hug in your mug” to transmit message that how the new taste 3in1 coffee with smooth foam would like when customer drink it, the sense of humor that the ad communicate to the customers could help improve the effectiveness of the new Nescafe Coffee.
From the discussion above, we can see that though the three print ads are all from similar product, instant coffee and what’s more the target user group of them is the same which is the users in of the Malaysian market, but a number of differences could be identified when we look at the detail of the print ad in term of ad execution, objectives, tone of the ads and the execution styles selection.
9. Recommendations to enhance the three ads
To the Old Town White Coffee print ad, it is recommended that it could add some brief introduction of the product though it is well known to those who have lived in Malaysian for long, but the introduction is still needed because there are many tourists rushing into Malaysia who have no idea about the brand. The suggestion for Ipoh to improve it print ad it can use a more colorful image, such as the green tone to express the healthy life style that its ad promotes. And last for the Nescafe, it should add some Chinese characters because in Malaysian Chinese customers occupy a large proportion of the market and what’s more there are a large number of Chinese tourists who come to Malaysia for holiday and they may not be very good at English nor to mention about knowing Bahasa, so that it would be recommended that some Chinese introduction could be added to the print ad.
Arens, W. F. & Bovee, C. L. 1994, Advertising. 5th edition, Burr ridge: Irwin
Cant, M. C., Strydom, J. W. & Jooste, C. J. 2006, Marketing Management. Cape Town: Juta & Co. p.451
Engel, J. F. 1994, Promotional strategy. Burr Ridge: Irwin, p.166
Pezzullo, M. A. 1998, Marketing financial services. New York: American Bankers Association, p.241
Shah, K. & D’Souza, A. 2009, Advertising N Promotion. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill, p.14
Kelley, L. D. & Jugenheimer, D. W. 2008, Advertising media planning: a brand management approach. 2nd edition, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc, p.59
Appendix 1 Old Town While Coffee Print AD
Appendix 2 Nescafe 3in1 Coffee Print AD
Appendix 3 Ipoh White Coffee Print AD