HRM strategies in Company ABC

By | March 22, 2013

 

 

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Executive summary

 

This thesis uses the imaginary case of Company ABC to explain some issue in the international HRM practices. Three major parts of the study could be found below: the first part is the description of some of the assumptions of Company ABC that are made in this study; the second part of the study discusses two major issues of the international HRM in Company ABC’s expansion strategy in the foreign market, the issues are culture shocks and resistance change which are common in the international business practices and within the discussion part we have tried to give a theoretical review of each problem and how each problem impact the expansion strategy of the imaginary Company ABC; and the last part of the study is trying to give some useful and practical recommendations to the Company ABC to deal with the two challenges that have just been mentioned. To deal with the culture shock, we have recommended that the company could use a comprehensive training which include cultural awareness training, visits to the host country, language training and practical daily life assistance and also provide help to the adjustment to the new culture. And to deal with the resistance to change, methods such as communication and education, participation and involvement, facilitation and support and negotiation and agreement are discussed.

List of figures, tables and charts

 

Figure 1 Linking strategic planning and human resources………………………………. 5

 

Table 1 Research findings on why U.S. Expatriates Go Home Early……………… 11


 

Content page

List of figures, tables and charts………………………………………………………………………… 2

1.     Assumptions made in this assignment………………………………………………………….. 5

2.     Question one…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

2.1           Stage 1. Mission, vision and values…………………………………………………. 6

2.2           Stage 2. External and Internal Analysis……………………………………………. 7

2.3           Stage 3. Strategy Formulation………………………………………………………… 8

2.4           Stage 4. Strategy Implementation……………………………………………………. 9

2.5           Stage 5. Strategy Evaluation…………………………………………………………… 9

3.     Question two…………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

3.1           Culture shocks…………………………………………………………………………….. 10

3.1.1     Problem description………………………………………………………………. 10

3.1.2     Impacts on the company’s international expansion…………………….. 11

3.1.2.1 An inefficient beginning………………………………………………….. 11

3.1.2.2 Expatriate failure and relative costs………………………………….. 12

3.1.2.3 Failure in merger and acquisition………………………………………. 13

3.2           Resistance to change……………………………………………………………………. 13

3.2.1     Problem description………………………………………………………………. 13

3.2.1.1 Fear of the unknown………………………………………………………. 14

3.2.1.2 Belief that change is unnecessary……………………………………… 14

3.2.1.3 Group pressure……………………………………………………………….. 15

3.2.2     Impacts on the company’s international expansion…………………….. 15

3.2.2.1 Slower implementation of the expansion strategy……………….. 15

3.2.2.2 Higher turnover rate……………………………………………………….. 15

4.     Question three…………………………………………………………………………………………. 16

4.1           Solutions to culture shocks…………………………………………………………… 16

4.1.1     Training for a new culture………………………………………………………. 16

4.1.1.1 Cultural awareness training……………………………………………… 16

4.1.1.2 Visits to the host country…………………………………………………. 17

4.1.1.3 Language training…………………………………………………………… 17

4.1.1.4 Practical daily life assistance……………………………………………. 17

4.1.2     Aiding adjustment to a new culture…………………………………………. 18

4.2           Solution to resistance to change – Controlling resistance to change…… 18

4.2.1     Communication and education……………………………………………….. 18

4.2.2     Participation and involvement………………………………………………… 19

4.2.3     Facilitation and support…………………………………………………………. 20

4.2.4     Negotiation and agreement…………………………………………………….. 20

4.2.5     Explicit and implicit coercion…………………………………………………. 21

Reference……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22


 

HRM strategies in Company ABC

 

1.        Assumptions made in this assignment

 

Company ABC is a large Malaysia firm headquartered in the capital Kuala Lumpur, concentrating on the business of office software development. The company was established in 1975 as a small electronic appliance trading company and later shifted its core business from trade to software development within the raising of the computer technology. Through more than two decades effort by adopting a follower strategy the company finally developed its series of office software systems, ABC Office Systems, which share many functions with the most popular Microsoft Office system but with the company’s own innovations. The ABC Office Systems, such as ABC Word, ABC Excel, ABC Presentation Assistant, have more competitive prices than the other major competitor and have perfect compatibility with documents created by the existing Microsoft Office system. And through a good marketing strategy contributed by the company’s marketing and sale department, the company has already had its business coverage extended all over the major cities of Malaysia contributing to a steady growth in term of profit, revenue, market share (accounting for 45 percent of the domestic office system market). Now with its current dominance in the domestic market, Company ABC has decided that it needs to expand geographically as the growth in the local market slows. And it has targeted one of the largest oversea markets, China, as its first step of the company’s expansion overseas strategy.

 

2.        Question one

Critically discuss how HRM strategies can assist Company ABC to achieve its objectives.

 

As mentioned previously, James Walker (1992) who is considered as the founder of the Human Resource Planning Society identifies three major methods in making people management strategy which are: a separate process, an aligned process and an integrated process, and the integrated process was recommended by James Walker (1992) for large companies to manage the HRM strategies to help achieve the strategic business goals. One method that had also been mentioned previously in relating human resources management practices and business strategies is proposed by Bohlander and Snell (2010) as showed below. Hence, there are in the five below stages, i.e. Mission, Vision and values, External and Internal Analysis, Strategy Formulation, Strategy Implementation and Evaluation, in which the human resource could through various kinds of efforts to facilitate the business strategy process and thus assist Company ABC to achieve its objectives.

 

Figure 1 Linking strategic planning and human resources

Source: Bohlander & Snell 2010, p.52

 

2.1    Stage 1. Mission, vision and values

 

Though in our general understanding, human resource department would rather in the execution role rather than playing the role initiator of the business strategies, human resource does playing an important role in setting up the core value and vision of the business especially when some changes happen and the company need to reposition the company’s mission and reshape the values and beliefs which are already shared and accepted by the existing corporate culture. Challenges could happen when there are discrepancies between the company’s current codes of conduct and the local labor law in China or the prevailing business and social ethics. For example, in term of overtime, the company code of conduct currently allow for 22 hours but the Chinese labor law allows 36 hours, then company may need to decides whether to change the company’s codes of conduct. The differences between the company’s current codes of conduct and the local labor law in China may easily be resolved by following the stricter rules to avoid disputes, but the differences between the company’s rules and the business and social ethics may not handles with ease due to the complicated Chinese culture. So it would be necessary for the HR department to carefully check the compatibility of the company’s code of conduct in the Chinese market and carry out changes if needed.

 

2.2    Stage 2. External and Internal Analysis

 

It is believed that the core of strategic planning is environmental scanning, a process of studying the environment of the organization to pinpoint opportunities and threats (Jackson & Mathis 2008, p.47). At the stage of the environmental scanning, the HR department also needs to start its own planning, HR planning because every company must draw from the same labor market that supplies all other companies which obviously include the competitors. So the HR should also scan all the external environmental factors which include Government influences, Economic conditions, Geographic and competition concerns, Workforce composition. For example, there is an ongoing aging population trend in China; the company has to know when such trend will become apparent as it would impact the total supply of the labor resources. And in term of the stage of internal analysis, the company not only needs to scan the external environment in China that the company is going to enter into, but it also needs to analyzing the jobs inside the organization by checking the availability of labor supply against the forecast of the labor force needs. The needs of the company could be forecasted by participating in the business plans to see what need to done in the future by what kind of people. And the information of the availability of internal labor supply of the company could be accessed from the current HR information databases or the organizational capabilities inventory to identify the availability of the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) of the staffs.

 

2.3    Stage 3. Strategy Formulation

 

At the stage of strategy formulation, the HR job would be to keep the consistence of the HR practices and the direction of such practices with the company strategies. In this point, there are actually two key tasks: internal fit and external fit. Internal fit is how the components of HR support and complement one another and external fit represents how the HR practices and policies are aligned with the strategic direction and the stage of the firm (Wilkinson, Redman & Snell 2009, p.88). For instance, with the company’s strategy to enter into the international market beginning with the Chinese market, it is reasonable to expect that the company would need to obtain and develop the global leaders, then in the field of internal fit the company has to make that the progression plans, recruitment, training, promotion system are in accordance with each other. And in the field of external fit, the company needs to align the HR practices with the internationalization strategy to make the leader cultivation more globalized and adapt to the changing conditions of the external especially the oversea market.

 

 

 

2.4    Stage 4. Strategy Implementation

 

At the stage of strategy implementation, the HR department also needs to take action to support the HRM part of the action taking. One fundamental role that HR plays in this stage is to reconcile human resource supply and demand which has just been mentioned above. To achieve this target, after having demand considerations which are based on the expected trend in the business activity and supply considerations which are about where and how the qualified talents could be found to fill the company’s vacancies, the company may turn to various staffing human resource reduction options. For example, during the implementation of Company ABC’s expansion strategy, the company may like to offshoring some business processes to China and thus some restructure will be needed which results in layoff in the home country and in the Chinese market the company could have many staffing options such as hiring full-time staffs, encouraging work overtime, outsourcing some business processes.

 

2.5    Stage 5. Strategy Evaluation

 

The success of business depends on two indispensable factors: correct strategy and appropriate implementation. To ensure that the strategy is appropriately implemented, every company needs to check the effectiveness of the implementation by setting up control and evaluation system. In the HR side, jobs are heavy and important because effectiveness of the implementation of strategies to a large extent is related to the performance of the employees. For example, to evaluate the performance of the employees, HR department could use the tool of balanced scorecard. The BSC or the balanced scorecard is a strategic business tool helping management to effectively translate their mission into tactical the tangible performance measures and processes in term of using a semi-standard structured report, supported by proven design methods and automation tools (Pangarkar & Kirkwood 2009, p.8). It is considered a very powerful and necessary tool or framework that is used to access the performance of employees especially in the information technology industry, and establish alignment every employee with the organization’s long term direction (Blokdijk 2008, p.129).

 

3.        Question two

Identify potential HR related challenges and issues that may arise from the company’s expansion overseas. Critically describe and discuss why and how the challenges and issues may affect the organization’s goals and objectives.

 

There are many challenges and issues that may arise during the implementation of the expansion strategy, below we will list some frequently appeared challenges which include culture differences, expatriate failure and resistance to change.

 

3.1    Culture shocks

 

3.1.1            Problem description

 

Culture as a term contains concept of differences and it can be referred as differences between groups of people who do things differently and perceive the world differently (Reisinger & Turner 2003, p.9). So culture difference is actually not necessary a problem but a kind of phenomenon because each countries tend to have different culture systems in term of beliefs, values and traditions, and each national culture has its own business culture (Aswathappa 2010, p.172) and based on which the organizational culture and occupational culture is set up. It is reasonable to expect some culture difference or even culture shock which is defined by LaRay M. Barna as the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new and different culture (Bennett 1998, p.216) and it is described by Kalervo Oberg (1960) as the anxiety and frustration resulting from the inability to interpret and create meaningful communication cues in a new culture. The rationality of the cultural shock is well explained by the U-Shaped Curve of Culture Shock which was proposed by Lysgaard (1955) who suggested that people go through cultural adjustment majorly through four phrases: Honeymoon Phase, Crisis Phase, Recovery Phase and Adjustment or Mastery Phase. Though individuals may adhere to the U-curve differently depending on several factors such as previous experience, expectations, time to prepare and so on. This model explains well that the cultural crisis happens soon after the end of the honeymoon in which people find the new environment interesting, and they begin to encounter difficulties in daily life and work with the feelings of frustration and anxiety. Below we will check the impact of cultural shocks if Company ABC expands its business in the Chinese market.

 

3.1.2            Impacts on the company’s international expansion

 

3.1.2.1      An inefficient beginning

 

We have always been told that a good beginning equals to a half of the final success. Faced by the impact of the cultural shock, a good beginning may not be expected easily. For the Company ABC to start its business in the Chinese market, it may take a certain period of time for the company to get to know the hidden rules and conventions that are prevailing in the Chinese business culture. And in the individual level, the Malaysian employees and managers will also experience the four stages of cultural shocks that have been just mentioned. In psychologist Elisabeth Marx (2001, p.74)’s study, on average, 70 percent of managers will experience five weeks of culture shock while the rest will have similar symptoms for up to ten weeks. This study hints that during Company ABC’s beginning stage of the expansion strategy, time could be very difficult and with managers and employees who are filled with the feelings of homesickness, confusion, irritability, stress, anger and depression, and the work performed could be very inefficient and ineffective.

3.1.2.2      Expatriate failure and relative costs

 

Table 1 Research findings on why U.S. Expatriates Go Home Early

 

Expatriate failure is usually defined as the premature return of an expatriate manager (Dowling & Welch 1988). According to an early survey of 74 large U.S. companies covering a total of 3.6 million employees and 12,500 expatriates, we can see that the leading and major causes of expatriate failure are “not performing job effectively”, “Received other, more rewarding offers”, “Expatriate or family not adjusting to culture” and “expatriate or family missing contact with families and friends at home” and three out of these four major reasons have closed relationship with the impact of the cultural shocks that not only happen to the expatriates but also their families. Cost due to expatriate failure is hard to measure. Costs to airfares, relocation, salary and training for a replacement are so called direct costs, but the company might as well lose market share, key customers or parts of its network when an expatriate fail (Bauernberger 2005, p.8).

3.1.2.3      Failure in merger and acquisition

 

As Company ABC wants to expand its market share in China in a fast speed, merger and acquisition (M&A) could be an option to merge a local company that already has the sale network well established. But the culture shock could make the M&A effort from a cheerful milestone to a much regretful failure. As suggested by Datta (1991) that cultural compatibility is highly important in M&A practices because while compatibility in management styles facilitates post-acquisition assimilation, major differences in management styles and philosophies could be a serious impediment to acquisition success. Any M&A effort that Company ABC invests in will be of great strategic importance to the company’s strategy of expansion oversea, if it becomes a failure then it will probably be a major setback to the company which has been verified by a lot of cases in the international business practices.

 

3.2    Resistance to change

 

3.2.1            Problem description

 

Like many other organizations that are exposed to the global economy and business environment, Company ABC will have to initiated some changes and prepare strategies to cope with the changes in order to survive in the competition for capital, markets, technology and skilled labor force in the foreign market of China in which the company has never been doing business. Ulrich (1997, p.151) has articulated four key areas in which HR professionals should shoulder the new responsibilities: strategic partner, administrative expert, employee champion, and change agent. In the area of change agent, Ulrich (1997) suggests that companies should take up the role of change agent, to make things happen, to introduce new policies and practices, to alter the way work is done, to change the culture of the organization and make the companies more responsive, flexible and competitive.

Resistance is defined as the employee behavior that seeks to challenge, disrupt, or invert prevailing assumptions, discourse, and power relations (Folger & Skarlicki 1999). And as concluded by Schiemann (1992) that resistance is often the primary reason change fails. In the case of the Company ABC which is about to carry out its strategy to perform international expansion in China, with the expecting changes that would soon happen along with the structural downsizing, international assignment, changes of corporate culture, increasing number of new co-workers and so on, some of the reasons that could cause resistance to change to happen during the formulation and implementation of the expansion strategy will be discussed below:

 

3.2.1.1      Fear of the unknown

 

As a company with more than 30 years’ history, most employees in Company ABC have known well how business is running in term of resource allocation and product development process, but as when the company enter into the Chinese market, changes could happen that beyond their current understanding and prediction which result in unknown, and by not having control and not knowing what will happen frequently arouse anxiety, fear, and stress (Dalton, Hoyle & Watts 2011, p.441). This fear of the unknown is natural for all human beings, and it is not only will exist in the lower level the employees but it will also be found in the middle and high management level because no absolute success will be granted.

 

3.2.1.2      Belief that change is unnecessary

 

Some employees and managers may feel that the company is performing very well in the local market, and it is not necessary to take the risk to expand business to China which could be a success as well as a failure that finally results in loss to the company especially when many employees believe that in China piracy is common and so that the market could be much smaller than the expected. With such ideas, it is reasonable to expect that some employees would believe that the change (the expansion in China) is not necessary which makes them resist the changes.

 

3.2.1.3      Group pressure

 

Some team norms may need to be altered if they conflict with the desire changes during the implementation of the expansion strategy then there could be group resistance to fight against the changes that are proposed by the company.

 

3.2.2            Impacts on the company’s international expansion

 

3.2.2.1      Slower implementation of the expansion strategy

 

With people are with fear and anxiety, it is general that they would perform less effectively and efficiently for the jobs that assigned to them, then the passive emotion among the employees would certainly slower the pace of the implementation of the expansion strategy the company is eager to implement.

 

3.2.2.2      Higher turnover rate

 

Most people prefer certainty and promising future, if uncertainties such as possible structural redundancy are anticipated, then some employees especially those skilled and talented staffs would choose to resign and go the work for the competitors who can provide similar and better offer. That is why fear of the unknown could lead to higher employee turnover rate. And the loss of the talented staffs must be critical to Company ABC which is in need for more talented human resource to carry out the expansion strategy.

 

 

4.        Question three

 

As the HR Director of the company, identify and propose the necessary HR strategies to be taken by the organization and how it would help in preventing and overcoming the potential related challenges and issues.

 

4.1    Solutions to culture shocks

 

4.1.1            Training for a new culture

 

One effective way to mitigate and minimize the impacts of the culture shocks is to train the expatriates for the new culture that they are going to get exposed to, according to Rajesh Iyer (2009, p.191) a comprehensive training system contains four parts: cultural awareness training, visits to the host country, language training, and instruction on practical everyday matters that may be different in the host country.

 

4.1.1.1      Cultural awareness training

 

The cross cultural awareness training refers to the training of the unseen values, beliefs and assumptions held by the particular cultural group that drive the operation of practice to the assignees (Perkins & Shortland 2006, p.114). Though cultural awareness training should be voluntary to the eligible employees, the Company ABC should strongly recommend and even provide incentives to encourage the employees to take part in the cross cultural awareness training to help them to understand and appreciate the different social culture that is in China. For example, courtesy and good manner is never too much between people especially between those who do not each other well, this is due to their indirect social communication method that has been adopted for more than five thousand years in China.

 

4.1.1.2      Visits to the host country

 

Training could be very theoretical and hard to understand for those who are with a totally different life experience in another country, so prior to the international assignment, Company ABC could provide some chance of short stay for those who are about to carry out the international assignment. As the company is about to expand its business in China, these short term visits which usually take one week are usually needed to do market research and negotiate with the relative parties. Short term visits is necessary because on one hand it provides opportunities to employees to have actual experiences of the different culture with relative low stress levels and on the other hand, these visits also give them chance to meet the co-workers and obtain a sense of their future work environments.

 

4.1.1.3      Language training

 

Language training is also of great importance when the company is going to enter into the vast Chinese market and some employees are going to stay for a long period of time. It might be difficult for employees to master the Chinese during the training section, but at least it equips the employees with the basic understanding of the language in term of how to learn the language then when the employees move to China they can learn by themselves. It is not appropriate to for those born in the English speaking countries to take it for granted that English should be the only language when doing international business, and this is also the fact when doing business in China as English proficiency is still low in the large country.

 

4.1.1.4      Practical daily life assistance

 

The final training stage, the practical daily life assistance, which actually happens when the assignees begin their life and work in the foreign country, consists of giving the assignees practical instruction on daily living in the society with different culture. When the employees start the new life and work in China, they must have a number of questions and difficulties about the daily life conventions; if the company leaves these questions unanswered and difficulties unresolved then the employees would probably encounter heavier culture shocks that would have severe impact on their performance and daily life. So the company need to follow up and provides assistance to the employees in their daily life though they have been trained about the culture differences in China.

 

4.1.2            Aiding adjustment to a new culture

 

Probably after several months when employees are expected to get familiar with the life in China and the final stage of the training for the new culture ends, it does not means that there would be no more further problems would appear or the future problems could be handled by the employees alone. No matter how good and comprehensive the training system would be, expatriates could still have difficulties in the daily life and work in the host country which might later appear after the training period, so that the meaning of the afterward support should not be under-estimated. That is why I will recommend Company ABC to continue to provide support to assignees especially those are expected to work for a long time in China to help them to facilitate the adjustment to the new culture.

 

4.2    Solution to resistance to change – Controlling resistance to change

 

4.2.1            Communication and education

 

As mentioned above, fear of the unknown about what will happen is one of the major reasons for resistance to change, so the first recommendations given to Company ABC is to use communication and education. Communication and education could make use of the opportunity created by the resistance to change to make the managers to interact more frequently with the staffs to review the decision to introduce changes, and probably to explore alternative ways to meet the desired objective. Communication and education is of great importance as when staffs resist the change because they do not know exactly what is going on and why such change is needed. By explaining the company’s actual objectives behind the decisions, employees could know that some decisions are not made to increase the company’s revenue in a short period time but it is due to strategic consideration which focuses on a long term’s perspective. The timing of giving the communication is also important. The Company ABC should give the communication in an earlier time to make the employees to have the appropriate expectation of what will happen and prepare for the changes psychologically.

 

4.2.2            Participation and involvement

 

As proposed by Stone (2011, p.576) that whenever there is a chance, management and employee should be encouraged to participated in change process to give everyone a sense of ownership and involvement regarding the decision to initiate a change. Studies have shown that those who participate in the change process in term of the proposing and execution of the change would more likely to support the change because they too some extent believe that they make the decision to perform the change or they contribute to the changes and what is more because they take part in the change they usually have more in-depth understanding of why the change is needed and what will happen next that make them believe that the change is within their expectation and understanding. This view is also in accordance with Richard Tanner, Virgin Blue’s general manager’s view that the most effective way to manage change in an uncertain environment is to actually involve those who do the work.

 

 

4.2.3            Facilitation and support

 

There are various supportive mechanisms to reduce resistance, such as counseling and training could be adopted (McKenna 2000, p.503). Different from communication which usually happens before the actual happening of the change to prepare people psychologically about the change, facilitation and support usually happen during the implementation of the change. Counseling could be used on a regular basis through face to face and one to one interview; during the counseling the management not only could obtain the reflections of the employees to provide recommendations about how the change is going to be perform in the future, it also give the management a change to help provide assistance to the employees to resolve some problems that appear in the work and daily life. Training compared to counseling would not happen in a regular basis, but it is also useful and necessary. Usually when there is a major change, such as the change of the company’s operation system used by the programmer and technician, there will be a need to hold a training to teach the employees new knowledge to facilitate the change. One major different between counseling and training is that counseling usually would only take around half an hour but training could take as long as several weeks depending on the nature of change.

 

4.2.4            Negotiation and agreement

 

As mentioned above, people could resist the change when it influences the group and personal interests as people will naturally seek to ensure that any change is consistent with their own values and needs. But when employees and groups such as unions would rather not to continue to support the change even after the counseling and communication is well done, negotiation then could be adopted to reach an agreement. The disadvantage of using negotiation is that company may be forced to make compromises such as raise of salary because of the request from the group, and the advantage of negotiation is that once the agreement is reached business will soon resume normal and change could be widely accepted.

 

4.2.5            Explicit and implicit coercion

 

Negotiation may in a short period of time resolve the issue and convert the resistance to change to support for the change, but the more frequent way and more cost beneficial way is to directly use coercion the facilitate the change. The above methods to control the resistance to change will all cost resources, for example, communication and training would consume time and money, but it would not be necessary for the management to explain the company’s whole strategy to employees in all levels. To different positions and levels, different methods could be adopted to control to resistance to change. For example, to the sale staffs, the Company ABC could just give out orders to request them to follow to achieve the target of the company but to the top managers, more counseling and training are recommended.

 

4.2.6             

Reference

 

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Bauernberger, J. 2005, Human Resources in the Global Market. Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag, p.8

 

Bennett, M. J. 1998, Basic concepts of intercultural communication: selected readings. Yarmouth, Maine: Intercultural Press, Inc. p.216

 

Blokdijk, G. 2008, Balanced Scorecard 100 Success Secrets, 100 Most Asked Questions on Approach, Development, Management, Measures, Performance and Strategy. Brisbane QLD: Emereo Pty Ltd, p.129

 

Bohlander, G. & Snell, S. Managing Human Resources. 2010, 15th edition, Mason, OH: South-western Cengage Learning. p.51

 

Dalton, M., Hoyle, D. G. & Watts, M. W. 2011, Human Relations, 4th edition, Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. p.441

 

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Dowling, P. J. & Welch, D. 1988. International human resource management: an Australian perspective, Asia-Pacific Journal of Management 6 (1) 39-65

 

Folger, R. & Skarlicki, D. 1999, Unfairness and resistance to change: Hardship as mistreatment, Journal of Organizational Change management, 12 (1), 35-50

 

Iyer, R. 2009. MBA Fundamentals International Business. New York: Kaplan Publishing, p.191

 

Jackson, J. H. & Mathis, R. L. 2008, Human Resource Management, 12th edition, Mason, OH: Thomson Higher Education. p.47

 

Lysgaard, S. 1955, Adjustment in a foreign society: Norwegian Fulbright grantees visiting the United States. International Social Sciences Bullentin, 7, 45-51

 

Marx, E. 2001, Breaking through culture shock: what you need to succeed in international business, London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, p.74

 

McKenna, E. F. 2000, Business psychology and organisational behavior. New York: Psychology Press Ltd, p.503

 

Oberg, K. 1960. Culture shock: Adjustment to new cultural environments. Practical Anthropology, 7, 177-182.

 

Pangarkar, A. M. & Kirkwood, T. 2009, The Trainer’s Balanced Scorecard: A Complete Resource for Linking Learning to Organizational Strategy. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, p.8

 

Perkins, S. J. & Shortland, S. M. 2006, Strategic international human resource management: choices and consequences in multinational people management. 2nd edition, London: Kogan page Limited. p.114

 

Reisinger, Y. & Turner, L. W. 2003, Cross-cultural behaviour in tourism: concepts and analysis. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. p.9

 

Schiemann, W. 1992, why change fails. Across the Board. 29 (4), 53-54

 

Stone, R. 2011, Human Resource Management, 7th edition, Milton Old: John Wiley & Sons Austraila, Ltd, p576

 

Ulrich, D. 1997, Human Resource Champions, Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press, P.151

 

Walker, J. W. 1992. Human resource strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

 

Wilkinson, A., Redman, T. & Snell, S. 2009, The SAGE handbook of human resource management. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. p.88

 

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