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Toffler (1985) suggests that developed organizations change significantly only when three conditions are met, viz. (1) enormous external pressures, (2) people inside who are strongly dissatisfied with the existing order, and (3) a coherent alternative embodied in a plan, a model, or a vision. As when Hans Wijer took up the position of Chairman Akzo Nobel in 2003, these three conditions had already been met which we can see part of it from the poor performance of the company that attracted the angry emotion of the shareholders and employees and managers who were eager to see the changes happen. Below we will discuss the concept of depth of organizational intervention or different levels of intervention.
Interventions are structured activities used individually or in combination by the members of a client system to improve their social or task performance (MEHTA 2009, p.137) and act as principal learning processes in the “action” stage of organization development. Interventions could happen at different levels: individual, group, organization and trans-organization. Activities of changes in term of their organization level affected are listed below according to Thomas G. Cummings and Christopher G. Worley (2009).
Figure 1 Interventions and primary organization level affected
Source: Cummings, T. G. & Worley, C. G. 2009, Organization development & change. 9th edition, Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. p.157