In this report, Hong Ling garment making factory in Guangdong will be explored in so many aspects including its key characteristics and problems by six-box diagnosis model in areas such as organizational purpose and objectives, organizational structure, organizational rewards, helpful mechanism, relationships and leadership, downsizing and its related advantages, risks and anti-risk solutions, organizational interventions and its advantages and disadvantages, and the political issues and related solutions.
This report is implemented under the background that Hong Ling garment making factory is acquired by Qianjiang Textile Garment Company, which asks for good management on Hong Ling’s transformation period.
2.0 Company introduction and diagnosis
2.1 General information
Qianjiang Textile Garment Company was founded in Hong Kong in the year of 1990, which is the big giant of women garment manufacturer. While in 2003, it moved to its new location which is more than 24,000 square meters in Dongguan, Guangdong with more than 2,000 skillful workers and 180 managerial staffs (Qianjiang Textile Garment Company 2012).
Hong Ling Garment Making Factory is founded in 1995, which is located in Dongguan, Guangdong Province with 500 working staffs. This garment making manufacturer is famous for the products of women garments. While under the economy downturn period, Hong Ling Factory is unable to make ends meet every financial year, which even begins to default the salary of its workers (Qianjiang Textile Garment Company 2012).
Regards the situations of HongLing and its former prosperous, Qianjiang Textile Garment Company has acquired HongLing factory to expand its business and is intend to take full advantage of the people, equipment and customer resources of Hong Ling to make better performance in Chinese market. We’ll make an analysis of the achievement of Hong Ling Factory and figure out its existing problems for Qianjiang Textile Garment Company to manage this new acquired factory effectively in the future (Qianjiang Textile Garment Company 2012).
2.2 The six box organizational model
Weisbord (1976, pp. 430-447) defined a diagnostic model, which is described as the results of the efforts to combine bits of data, theories, research, and hunches into a working tool which anybody is able to use. And this model is built up on six variables (see figure 1).
Source: Weisbord, M. R. 1976, Organizational Diagnosis: Six Places to Look for Trouble with or without a theory, Group and Organization studies, Vol. 1, pp. 430-447,
● Structure: How do we divide up the work?
● Rewards: Do all tasks have incentives?
● Helpful Mechanism: Have we adequate coordinating technologies?
● Relationships: How do we manage conflict among people? With technologies?
● Leadership: Does someone keep the boxes in balance?
Advantages of six box organizational diagnostic model is its comprehensive on every aspect of organizational operation and management issue to support the organizational change and adjustment on its current problems (Weisbord, M. R. 19 Weisbord, M. R. 1976). To help Qianjiang Textile Garment Company understand Hong Ling factory thoroughly and design suitable management strategy to back up the new integrated factory after acquisition Hong Ling.
From Wang (2010)’s survey, Hong Ling was once the famous and popular women garment manufacturer in China, which has been engaged in women clothes making. The business mission and objective of Hong Ling is to maintain its strength in women garment making in Chinese market by fashionable and modern design, advanced garment making skills and high quality workers to make its brand not only famous in Chine market but also in the world market. To realize this objective, Hong Ling Factory, has invested a great deal of capital and manpower to improve its brand popularity in China.
Wang (2010) pointed out compensation system in Hong Ling garment making factory is piecework based salary system, which puts almost all of the responsibility and risks to individuals rather their the company. This system discloses clearly that the workers’ salary in Hong Ling will be deducted when some errors or accidents occur, which represents strict regulation and rigid standard on pay for performance management.
In addition to the piecework based salary system, there are limited or almost no incentives to promote working enthusiasm of employees particularly garment making workers.
2.6 Help mechanism
In Wang’s (2010) survey, task distribution in Hong Ling is directly and autocratically. It is said the help mechanism in Hong Ling garment making factory is at a shortage. Although the previous management in Hong Ling are full of passion to produce the most fashionable and attractive products for its customers, the thoughts often conflict with the reality that the shortage of help mechanism such as the research and development section, technology management section and several important section to manage the modern technology to make Hong Ling keep the pace with the modern and international requirement on women garment making contribute to the fall behind of the overall performance of Hong Ling in comparison to its competitors.
Frankly speaking, the survey from Wang (2010) points out relationship building and maintenance in Hong Ling garment making factory is insufficient. Its leader is serious and strict, who are so harsh about everything. And the piecework based salary system makes each employee only focus on their performance and the quantity of their garments than other things including relationship with other colleagues. As the organizational structure in Hong Ling is just as in a mess with too much management people, which makes the management practices in Hong Ling garment making factor is insufficient and even out of function to maintain the good relationship in the work place.
Hughes, Ginnett and Curphy (2006) pointed out two types of leaderships such as supportive leadership style and task oriented leadership. The supportive leader often shows greater concern with the employees and always tries his or her best to build up and maintain mutual trust and communication in the organization such as listen to his or her employees carefully and give full support to his or her employees’ needs. In comparison to supportive leader, task oriented leader is only motivated by the task achievements and gives instructions and directions to his or her employees to accomplish required tasks by the exploitation of his or her position power. The two types of leaderships are shown in figure 2.
Figure 2 Contingency Model
Source: Adapted from business.nmsu.edu: Sometimes the situation demands your leadership
Hong Ling garment making factory’s leadership style belongs to task oriented leadership, which only focuses on task accomplishments instead of relationship in his or her organization. As a matter of fact, task oriented leadership makes each element in the six-box organizational diagnostic model which work as the cornerstone of Hong Ling garment making factory out of function.
2.9 Diagnostic result
Thanks to the aid of Six- Box Organizational Diagnostic Model to support us to research Hong Ling garment making factory problems.
For the other, among these 500 working staffs, half of which are management people it is unnecessary and a waste of money to raise them.
Again, among the garment making workers, two thirds are elders, which are resistant to fresh things and works in a slow and old fashion way.
In brief, Hong Ling garment making factory present the appearance of decrepit situation with ineffective management and outdated working ways, which conflicts with its original mission.
Spreitzer and Mishra (2002) pointed out downsizing is the popular managerial practice in more and more organizations to increase efficient and effective results in organizations. And one of the most general factors to use downsizing is to accomplish bottom-line objectives such as reducing cost of overhead and operation, speeding up process of decision making and communication by management and lowering duplication by mergers.
3.1 Reasons for downsizing
3.1.2 Economic reason
From the economic perspective, companies begin downsizing can cut costs and improve its bottom line performance, which results in improved economical performance (McKinley, Zhao & Rust 2000). This reason is the first concern for Hong Ling garment making factory to employ downsizing to save cost, which is its imperative task.
3.1.3 Rational perspective
Rabin (1999) figured out four quadrants cause downsizing and determine the downsizing rate such as size of the organization, compensation of employees, deregulation level, and financial and non-financial background of the organization. First of all, Hong Ling’s size is medium level, which has poor employees’ compensation level with weak financial background in comparison to other rivals. And the complicated and messy organizational structure leads to a business development dilemma (Qianjiang Textile Garment Company 2012).
It is reasonable for Qianjiang Textile Garment Company to employ downsizing in Hong Ling garment making factory to improve its effectiveness at least from the basic level.
McKinley, Zhao and Rust (2000) have added ideological variables to the determinant lists of downsizing including two ideologies: employees’ self reliance and debureaucratization to mark downsizing with legitimacy color. The ideology of employees’ self reliance advocates it is the responsibility of the employee to bear for his or her own welfare and security in his or her career instead of the organization. And debureaucratization ideology advocates reducing or eliminating hierarchies to displace some middle management level employees.
The two ideological are the rationales for Hong Ling to downsize as well. For one thing, every work owns its risks, which should be afforded by the employer and employees together. The same as downsizing, if Hong Ling would like to fight for a continuous development, moving out some unnecessary elements are unavoidable, which cause many risks for both its employer and employees. For the other, Hong Ling’s structure is just in a mess, which is reasonable for it to remove some unnecessary position to save cost and resources.
3.1.5 Social perspective
Fisher and White (2000) state the status of institutional rationale with legitimate support for organizations to adopt downsizing. Three social forces: learning, cloning and constraining motive organizations to downsize to become effective and terse. In terms of Hong Ling’s situation, it is acquired by Qianjiang Textile Garment Company. It has no choice but to develop it as a more learning organization with good motivations to meet the developing pace of Qianjiang Textile Garment Company. Downsizing is the most direct way to make Hong Ling develop in the expected direction by reducing its workforce and downsizes the unnecessary levels.
3.2 Risks from downsizing
Amabile and Conti (1999) examined downsizing’s effects in organizations. The major conclusion of their study is that downsizing hinders the ability of an organization to produce innovations, because downsizing in the organization breaks organizational networks. Second, when examining environmental changes in work place, downsizing will affect the work climate negatively and diminish creativity. And worse still, downsizing’s negative effect may last longer than the end of downsizing process. Third, downsizing has created negative consequences on individual. For example downsizing make employees’ willingness level to fulfill task reduced, the willingness level to give suggestions reduced, the motivation and passion to do the job right reduced and even a fear of losing job rise in the organization.
Under the presented risks above, we could infer these risks may occur in Hong Ling garment making factory as the result of downsizing.
3.2 Tactics to deal with downsizing risks
Wiesenfeld, Brockner and Thibault (2000) suggest four stages for organizations implementing downsizing successfully, which are used by us to give guidelines for Hong Ling garment making factory.
3.2.1 Pre-downsizing stage
Hong Ling is recommended to have a full consideration on the pre-downsizing stage. First, it is required to question the existing theory of business with a thorough understanding of the within and outside situation at the current time in Hong Ling.
Secondly, Hong Ling is proposed to create an organizational culture to promote enquiry and open communication in order to assist innovation and employees’ awareness on the changed reality caused by downsizing.
Third, arriving at the proper strategy set, Hong Ling can assist its future process after its acquisition by Qianjiang Textile Garment Company.
3.2.2 Pre-implementation Stage
During downsizing process, necessary steps would be included in Hong Ling garment making factory.
First, Hong Ling ought to design the planned approach to carry out downsizing. Hong Ling would involve understanding of downsizing and its related changes in structure, roles, relationships and rules.
Second, Hong Ling should figure out assumptions, mindsets and form the fundamental attitudes towards downsizing required
Thirdly, sharing employees in Hong Ling garment making factory with any timely information through continuous communication during different forums is necessary to dispel misunderstanding and conflicts.
After that, communication the concerned stakeholders with these detailed procedures in the transparent and timely way is vital for Hong Ling garment making factory to dispel misunderstanding in the opinion of society such as its customers and the community, which is to maintain Hong Ling’s image.
3.3.3 Implementation Stage
Implementation stage is the most vital part for Hong Ling to make downsizing successful, which should follow the next principles (Wiesenfeld, Brockner & Thibault 2000).
First, Hong Ling is recommended to introduce new designed processes and organizational structures to match the downsizing outcomes. Second, assisting employees to give questions on existing problems, to progress new competitiveness, to manage new roles related to change and to cope with relationships by communication, instructions and initiatives of training. Third, Hong Ling should be sensitive enough to the needs from both survivors and these victims such as laid off workers.
Fourth, assisting employees both the survivors and victims of Hong Ling garment making factory to cope with trauma caused by downsizing such as one on one counseling, face to face communication and other ways to console employees.
And the most important suggestion for Hong Ling to implement downsizing is to provide support for these victims such as training and developing for new skills and help them get new opportunity of career and other suitable assistance to dispel their trauma.
3.3.4 Post-implementation Stage
Post implementation stage for downsizing should be emphasized by Hong Ling garment making factory with the next considerations from suggestions of Wiesenfeld, Brockner and Thibault (2000).
First, Hong Ling factory should renegotiate these survivors with psychological contract to strengthen their confidence towards their factory. Second, special support and opportunity for employees in Hong Ling to try out new competencies are important. Third, Hong Ling garment making factory should monitor and manage downsizing’s outcomes from both individual and organizational aspect.
All in all, with careful management like our above suggestions, Hong Ling garment making factory is possible to lower the risks aroused by downsizing and downsize itself successfully.
4.0 Organizational interventions
4.1 Cost of interventions
Any changes will call for a cost, the change in Hong Ling garment making factory including any means of interventions, which we’ll explain in the following.
4.1.1 Financial cost
Wiesenfeld , Brockner and Thibault (2000) figured out the great financial cost may be encountered by Hong Ling. First, inviting a consultant whether inside one or outside one, Hong Ling may have to pay a cost such as salary or a certain amount of bonus. Second, different kinds of intervention, the downsizing for example calls for Hong Ling to pay suitable compensation to make up for the loss of those laid offs. And it may even put Hong Ling into the court and pay a larger bill than the peaceful settlement. Third, the advanced payment of some pension related compensation may also cost Hong Ling a lot.
4.1.2 People cost
Wiesenfeld, Brockner and Thibault (2000) figured out the great people cost may be encountered by Hong Ling too. First, any intervention ask for the investment of human resources in the investigation stage, designing stage, forming stage, implementation stage and assessment stage, which need not human capital but the talents. Second, management talents are also important and necessary to ensure the success of these interventions. Thirdly, the negative effects brought about by these interventions may also call for human resource investment to offer solutions.
4.1.3 Reputation cost
Organizational interventions will also satisfy Hong Ling a lot. The negative effects brought about by interventions may influence Hong Ling’s reputation both inside and outside as a qualified employer and a garment manufacturer respectively, which may be the biggest cost paid by Hong Ling (Wiesenfeld, Brockner & Thibault 2000).
4.1.4 Shareholders’ betrayal
May be the largest cost Hong Ling may pay for is the betrayal of its shareholders (Wiesenfeld, Brockner & Thibault 2000). Organizational interventions such as downsizing or other kinds of changes may arouse panic among shareholders to worry about the safety of their holding shares, which may become the epidemic to infect so many shareholders of Hong Ling to sell their shares to turn them into cash. The more shares of Hong Ling being sold by its shareholder, the higher risks faced by Hong Ling such as the falling of share price, the falling of its profit making, the falling of the number of its garment making reservations and so on.
4.2 Intervention tactics
4.2.1 Lay off
The first common intervention for Hong Ling to manage the overstaffed situation is lay off (Maurer 2009). Hong Ling could fire some employees whose position and contribution to Hong Ling is almost null such as several middle management employees who comes to Hong Ling to work due to the fact that they are the family members or relatives of Hong Ling’s boss. And the second choice for Hong Ling to fire is these old and effective employees who are approximate the retired age and resistant to any new thoughts and ideas. If fire these kinds of people in Hong Ling, the expense in salary, human resource management and other kinds of bills for them should be saved and be invested into other aspects’ development.
Outplacement is the intervention of Hong Ling to build and maintain its image as employer in front of the public and both the current and potential employees (Maurer 2009). Sometimes, lay off is criticized as too radical, which may easily arouse the resistance and resentment. And outplacement can mollify the dilemma for Hong Ling and offers necessary counseling services on employment in the future for laid off employees to console and mollify laid-off employees.
Instead of firing the old and ineffective employees such as old employees, early retirement may sound better than layoff. Early retirement is to reduce working years to cut expense on employees’ salary and even pension. While, it is a long term investment and time consuming (Maurer 2009).
4.2.4 Cross training
Buchanan and Badham (1999) figured out the usage of cross training, which is helpful for Hong Ling to enhance working productivity and competitiveness of employees by giving them diversified trainings and developing programs to improve their productivity and capacity. And by improving the skills and knowledge owned by employees in Hong Ling, the productivity will be increased. For example, with the same amount of inputs, after the cross training interventions, employees in Hong Ling can produce large amounts of outputs than before, which can bring more profits for Hong Ling in the future. And cross training intervention for Hong Ling’s employees is also the career development programs, whose benefits will be potential.
4.2.5 Voluntary resignation
Buchanan and Badham (1999) voluntary resignation is a gentle and peaceful organizational intervention to mollify the conflicts between employees and management in Hong Ling garment making factory. In comparison to radical consequences from lay off, voluntary resignation can produce positive consequences such as good relationship between workers and the management in Hong Ling. Hence, it is a potential and positive organizational intervention.
Maurer (2009) gave unpaid holiday high evaluation in comparison to other radical intervention means. Hong Ling garment making should also learn from this organizational intervention means to assist its future development after acquired by Qianjiang Textile Garment Company. Hong Ling is possible to give employees the choice to have holiday with no payment to save cost and maintain harmonious relationships with its workers to avoid some radical actions aroused from some radical interventions means.
The above intervention means are very considerate and mild except for lay off, they may work as the rational means to Qianjiang Textile Garment Company to manage Hong Ling garment making factory’s future after the acquisition (Maurer 2009). These interventions assist Qianjiang Textile Garment Company to remove the headache of overstaff such as the layoff intervention, the high cost in employee salary such as unpaid holiday, voluntary holiday and early retirement, low competitiveness such as cross training intervention. At the same time, these interventions own only short term life circle, which are more appropriate for the transition period rather than long term effect.
4.3.2 Other alternatives
There are also many alternatives for Hong Ling to manage its traditional period (Maurer 2009). First, Hong Ling may choose to reduce the working hours of some ineffective workers to achieve the aim of warning them and promote other workers working productivity by this mild intervention mean to give warnings. Secondly, Hong Ling should also lower the wages of some workers instead of firing them. Giving them clear and sufficient reasons for lowering their wages instead of firing them, it is more acceptable than lay off to workers in Hong Ling garment making factory.
5.0 Political issues
Latif, Abideen and Nazar (2011) described organizational politics as these activities or actions which aren’t approved officially in an organization to be taken to impact others to achieve personal goals. Vigoda (2002) stated out briefly that for organizations it isn’t so difficult to find individuals or teams and groups to indulge political behaviors to impact decision making.
June (2003) described some disadvantages of politics for organization. Political behaviors in organizations consume time and energy and confine information and data shared within the organizations and obstacle communication development.
All in all, political issues in Hong Ling aroused by downsizing may bring about lot of troubles and obstacles for it to support both itself and Qianjiang Textile Garment Company in the future.
5.1 Political behaviors
Joan (2009) figured out dimensions of choice for political behaviors made by members in organizations, which own the same odds to take place in Hong Ling caused by downsizing. The dimensions include internal dimension and external dimension.
5.1.1 External dimension
Whistle blowing may become a common phenomenon in Hong Ling aroused by downsizing with the attempts to achieve personal objectives but not to assist the healthy development of Hong Ling factory (Susan 2003). Downsizing may deliver the information of job loss to all of employees in Hong Ling. Hence, to maintain their advantages and competitiveness in comparison to other colleagues in Hong Ling to strive for the leaving chance, the original characteristics of whistle blowing may be distorted. For example, there may be many employees to disclose some untrue stories related to others to damage others image in front of their boss and gain the leaving chances. And if these practices played by employees more and more frequently, whistle blowing may just become a malevolent game in Hong Ling with the mere aim of protect oneself by doing harms to others.
Downsizing may create some survivors but also some victims in Hong Ling. For some victims, who feel hurt a lot, they may employ many reprisals to find self comfort. Leaking information may become their option to hit Hong Ling to offset their hurts (Susan 2003). There is some confidential information for a garment making factory such as the new garment design style, garment making measures, the piecework’s salary for employees and so on, which is the important and confidential information for Hong Ling to keep its competitiveness competing with its rivals.
While if these pieces of confidential data are leaked to the rivals, the advantage and competitive owned by Hong Ling may be lost, which indicate the loss of profit.
Sometimes, downsizing may signify dismissing some employees, which will put Hong Ling garment making factory into court. In labor contract, there are some clear rules and items to state out the rights and profits of employees should enjoy and be protected in their companies, which are also stated clearly in the labor contract of Chinese enterprise including Hong Ling such as the employment safety, pension and benefits and so on (Susan 2003). If these issues aroused by downsizing such as layoffs go on an improper way, Hong Ling may face the fate of lawsuits.
For example, with no proper solution for the needs and compensation including unemployment benefits, administrative processing costs or payoffs for pension and benefit, the results of the lawsuits Hong Ling involved in may be disadvantage, which indicate a great deal of compensation
5.1.2 Internal dimension
Exchange of favors
The unhappy experience may be experienced by Hong Ling garment making factory is favor exchanging with each other to achieve the win-win results (Susan 2003). It implies that different employee or middle or low level managers may cooperate with each other to even make fake good performance results to assist each other gain the leaving opportunity than other group.
The fake performance results may even impact the business decision making of Hong Ling and brings about big damage to the total profits making.
Downsizing will also cause strike. It is a possibility in every labor negotiation. And the right of employees to strike is even protected by the labor law of so many countries (Susan 2003).
For example, angry employees may instigate his or her colleagues to stop doing their works and employ strike to show their objection to downsizing, which will cause direct economy loss in Hong Ling (Susan 2003). And its side effects may even be upgraded to become a social problem. This upgraded strike will affect the reputation of Hong Ling garment negatively.
Worse still, the cost of coping strike may cost Hong Ling a lot such as the offering of extra rewards to both strikers and non-strikers or promising benefits to strikes to end the strike. The extra cost to calm down the angry employees may larger than what Hong Ling will gain from downsizing such as saving cost (Susan 2003).
Susan (2003) figured out downsizing issue in Hong Ling garment making factory may arouse lockouts for the sake that the collective bargain between Hong Ling and its employees such as these laid off worker expired. And some survivors may also use this way to show their protest to Hong Ling and gain more safety in their future jobs and avoid the same destiny as these laid-off workers in this time. The bad effect is the same or more terrible than strike, which can make Hong Ling unable to fulfill some contracts of garment making orders within a tight time line.
Maurer (1996 cited in Dobson & Dobson 2001) came up with the default options for company to deal with political issues. Hong Ling garment making factory will be recommended the same options in table 1.
Table 1 default options for Hong Ling to solve political issue
|Use power||A gentle reminder, a joke, a recollection||Underground resistance; tit for tat response,|
|Manipulate those people who oppose||Selective information||Possibility of destruction of trust|
|Apply force of reason||To overwhelm opponents by facts||Close off rather than bring about needed dialogue|
|Play off relationships||Call on the sense of obligation from opponents||Unaddressed resistance|
|Make deals||If you do this for me, I will do that for you||Can work under high level of resistance|
|Kill the messenger||Get rid of the people who dare to question the wisdom of downsizing||Massagers’ skills may be improve to destroy top management’s capacity|
5.2.1 Using power
Following Maurer’s (1996 cited in Dobson & Dobson 2001) instruction, Hong Ling garment making factory should use it power skillfully to influence its employees in the positive direction. For example, Hong Ling should subtly use the power to remove the cloud of downsizing. Using a gentle reminder to let people know who is the boss or the joke during the meeting to remind them who manage their performance reviews or even a recollection on what have happened to those who object the similar initiatives.
When using the position power cleverly, the Hong Ling’s leader can win the chance to influence these people both the survivors and victim positively to correct their pessimistic emotion towards Hong Ling and their improper political behaviors.
5.2.2 Manipulating those who oppose and Application force of reason
On the basis of Maurer’s (1996 cited in Dobson & Dobson 2001) instruction, Hong Ling should well manipulate those who oppose downsizing by negatively political behaviors. For example, Hong Ling may deliver some fake information out to stimulate these opponents when they are ready to take designed actions, Hong Ling can use some facts to prove the untruth of these news which may also prove the false of these opponents and make them only the part of the story and the collapse of their negative political behaviors.
5.2.3 Playing off relations
Towards these opponents practised negative political behaviors to give bad influence both on Hong Ling’s people and its good image, Hong Ling garment making factory should also follow these instructions from Maurer (1996 cited in Dobson & Dobson 2001).
People are the advanced animal who owns affection. Towards the voice of objection among employees or managers, Hong Ling can persuade them and move them with the former support and assistance from Hong Ling for them and give suitable reciprocate support for their future to buy in their obligation to Hong Ling and give up carrying out negative political behaviors (Lewis 2002).
5.2.4 Making deals
In addition to buy in the support from opponents by reciprocating interest, buying in support from these supporters is also important (Lewis 2002). For one thing, they hold supportive attitudes towards these changes employed by Hong Ling. For the other, strengthening the support from these existing supporters is important. Maurer (1996 cited in Dobson & Dobson 2001) proposed the strategy that you do this for me and I’ll do that for you to further buy in the loyalty of existing supporters. With their loyalty, they can use their relationship network to influence people and colleagues around them and lead them to support Hong Ling gradually.
5.2.5 Killing the massager
For these who insist implementing negative political behaviors, Hong Ling should employ some coercive approach including suing these employees who employ too radically and negatively political behaviors (Lewis 2002).
“Killing” these messengers or people who are implementing racial and negative behaviors can work as the useful warning to warn these potential players of negative politics about the serious results.
Under exploration of the transition period of Hong Ling garment making factory under its acquisition by Qianjiang Textile Garment Company, suitable suggestions on organizational interventions, suggestions towards downsizing and political issues are found out.
Although there are still many limitations of this report due to time and other kinds of limitations, we still hope this report can assist Qianjiang Textile Garment Company to solve these existing problems in Hong Ling garment making factory to achieve prosperity in the future.
Amabile, T. M., & Conti, R. 1999, Changes in the Work Environment for Creativity During Downsizing, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 42, No. 6, p p. 630-640,
Buchanan & Badham 1999, Power, politics, and organizational change, SAGE Publications, London,
Chatterjee, L. & Bhattacharyya, S. 2001, Implementation of Downsizing: Issues and Consequences, Management Review, vol. 13(2), pp. 21-29,
Dobson, M. & Dobson, D. 2001, Enlightened office politics, American Management Association, New York,
Fisher, S. R. & White, M. A. 2000, Downsizing in a Learning Organization: Are There Hidden Costs, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 244-251,
Hughes, R.L., Ginnett, R.C. & Curphy, G.J. 2006, Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience, 5th edn, McGraw-Hill, New York,
Joan M. 2009, Organizational politics: problem or opportunity, Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 38-41,
June M. L. P. 2003, Situational Antecedents and Outcomes of Organizational Politics Perceptions, Journal of Managerial psychology, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 138-155,
Latif, A., Abideen, Z. U. & Nazar, M.S. 2011, Individual Political Behavior in Organizational Relationship, Journal of Politics and Law, Vol. 4, No. 1,
Lewis, D. 2002, The Place of Organizational Politics in Strategic Change, John Wiley & Sons, Australia,
Maurer 2009, Exploring Alternatives to Downsizing, Maurer & Associates, viewed 1st 2012,
McKinley, W, Zhao, J. & Rust, K. G. 2000, A Sociocognitive Interpretation of Organizational Downsizing, The Academy of Management Review, vol. 25, pp.227-243,
Qianjiang Textile Garment Company 2012, About Us, Qianjiang Textile Garment Company,
Rabin, J. 1999, Organizational Downsizing: An Introduction, Twentieth Century Fund Press, New York,
Spreitzer, G. M., & Mishra, A. K. 2002, To Stay or to Go: Voluntary Survivor Turnover Following an Organizational Downsizing, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 797-729.
Susan, C. 2003, Lies, Damned Lies and Organizational Politics, Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 357, 293-297
Vigoda, E. 2002, Stress-related aftermaths to workplace politics: the relationships among politics, job distress, and aggressive behavior in organizations, Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 23, No. 5, p p. 571-91,
Wang, X. B. 2010, 虹玲制衣厂的失败教训 “The lesson from Hong Ling Garment Making Factory’s failure”，China Business Review, No. 1, pp. 12-30,
Weisbord, M. R. 1976, Organizational Diagnosis: Six Places to Look for Trouble with or without a theory, Group and Organization studies, Vol. 1, pp. 430-447,
Wiesenfeld, B. M., Brockner, J. & Thibault, V. 2000, Procedural Fairness, Managers’ Self-esteem, and Managerial Behaviors Following a Layoff, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Review, Vol. 83, PP. 1-32.