Brief Introduction to China’s Physical Geography

china map and location of china in world

Location of China in the World

China is situated in the eastern part of Asia, on the west coast of the Pacific Ocean, in the southeastern part of the Eurasian continent. China borders 14 countries including Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Mongolia, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

The territory of China spans nearly 50 degrees in latitude and 60 degrees in longitude. The extreme points of China include:-

Easternmost point: 135°2′30’’E (intersection of the Heilongjiang (Amur) and Ussuri rivers);

Westernmost point: 73°29’59.79″E (near the western end of the Pamirs);

Northernmost point: 53°33′N,124°20′E (Mohe in Heilongjiang Province);

Southernmost point: 35°1‘00“N,112°17’09”E (Lidi Ansha / Lydi Shoal);

Area of China

With a total area of 3.7 million square miles (9,598,094 square km), China is the fourth largest country in the world following Russia, Canada and the United States. Provincial areas are as following:-

1 Xinjiang 1,664,900
2 Tibet 1,228,400
3 Inner Mongolia 1,183,000
4 Qinghai 720,000
5 Sichuan 485,000
6 Heilongjiang 473,000
7 Gansu 455,000
8 Yunnan 394,000
9 Guangxi 236,300
10 Hunan 211,800
11 Shaanxi 205,800
12 Hebei 190,000
13 Jilin 187,400
14 Hubei 185,900
15 Guangdong 179800
16 Guizhou 176,200
17 Henan 167,000
18 Jiangxi 166,900
19 Shandong 157,000
20 Shanxi 156,000
21 Liaoning 145,700
22 Anhui 139,600
23 Fujian 121,400
24 Jiangsu 102,600
25 Zhejiang 101,800
26 Chongqing 83,000
27 Ningxia 66,400
28 Taiwan 36,200
29 Hainan 33,920
30 Beijing 16,807
31 Tianjin 11,300
32 Hong Kong 10,980
33 Shanghai 6,340
34 Macau 254

Major Mountains and Rivers

China’s top 4 rivers are:

No.1 Yangtze River, with a full-length of 6300 km, it is the world’s third longest river;

No. 2 Yellow River, China’s second longest river, it has a total length of 5,464 km, it is one of the cradles of ancient Chinese civilization. Yellow River is known as the mother river in China;

No.3 Heilongjiang river in northern China, it has a total length of 4,400 kilometers;

No.4 Pearl River in southern China, it has a total length of 2,214 kilometers.

China’s top 4 mountains are:

No. 1 Himalayas: located along the border between China and India, Nepal and other countries, stretching over 2400 km with an average elevation of 6,000 meters, it is the world’s tallest mountains.

No. 2 Kunlun Mountains: it covers the west of the Pamirs, northwestern part of Sichuan Province, east China, it is more than 2500 kilometers with an average altitude of 5000-7000 meters, its highest peak is 7,719 meters above sea level.

No.3 Tianshan Mountains: located in central part of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (in northwestern part of China) with an average altitude of 3000-5000 meters, the highest peak is 7455.3 meters above sea level.

No. 4 Tanggula: located in the central part of Tibetan Plateau with an average elevation of 6,000 meters, the highest peak is 6,621 meters above sea level, it is the starting point of China’s longest river, the Yangtze River.