Analysis of cross cultural challenges faced by Hooters China

. Executive summary

Hooters China is a beach-themed American invested chain restaurant. It is famous for the comfortable dining atmosphere, authentic American food with a wide variety of beer, spirits, world known spicy chicken wings as well as warm and vibrant Hooters Girl. Obviously, it is a bright symbol in American food culture and a complete subversion of the traditional dining concept which is full of fashion, joy, and creativity.

This paper is aimed to investigate the cross cultural challenges faced by Hooters China at present. And then find solutions to the challenges faced by Hooters China in the culture areas to help Hooters China build a good reputation and win more local customers as well as expand its business in the mainland China. All the data gathered is from the internal workers, management, clients and the official web site of Hooters. And to assist the gathering project, lots of data are gathered from some related official website and database to facilitate my research.

In the end, due to the full investigation on the Hooters China and its present situation in Chinese market, this paper finds the cultural problems of Hooters China in the following aspects. The first one is the culture barrier towards profiting from the sexy appearance of women between Hooters China and Chinese people. The second one is the influence of cultural barrier on targeted customers of Hooters China. The third one is the conflicts caused by Hooters personnel recruitment culture. And it also describes some best practice in the areas of restaurants industry in Chinese market which can become the guideline for the future development of Hooters China. And at last it also gives proper recommendations to remove these cultural barriers which can help Hooters China to solve all these cultural problems and develop more smoothly in the nearly future.

. Acknowledgement

In the completion of this paper, I would like to show my deepest gratitude to my facilitator Mr. Ravi Varmman, a respectable, responsible and resourceful scholar, who has supported and guides me to fulfill my paper. Without his enlightening instruction, impressive kindnesses and patience, I could not finish this paper, thanks him so much.

I would also like to thank all the teachers from Help University College who offer me so much useful information on the fields of international business and develop the fundamental as well as essential academic competence.

My sincere appreciation also goes to my Chinese friends who work in Hooters China restaurants to offer me some useful data and information about Hooters China. Thanks for their encouragement and support.

. Content page

1.0 Introduction 5

1.1 Research objectives 6

1.1.1 To investigate the cross cultural challenges faced by Hooters China. 7

1.1.2 To find solutions to the challenges faced by Hooters China in the culture areas 7

2.0 Findings 7

2.1 Brief description on the areas being investigated 7

2.1.1Culture system of China 7

2.1.2 The culture barrier towards profiting from female sexy appearance 8

2.1.3 The influence of cultural barrier on targeted customers of Hooters China 9

2.1.4 The conflicts caused by Hooters personnel recruitment culture 10

2.2 Best practice available 11

3.0 Analysis 13

3.3.1 The analysis of culture barrier towards profiting from female sexy appearance 13

3.3.2 The analysis of cultural barrier on targeted customers of Hooters China and related food price issues 15

3.3.3 The analysis of cultural conflicts on personnel recruitment issue of Hooters China 17

4.0 Conclusion 19

4.1 Problems 19

4.2 Alternatives 20

4.2.1 Reduce the culture barrier towards profiting from female sexy appearance 20

4.2.2 Reducing the cultural barrier to enhance the number of local customers 21

5.0 Recommendation 24

5.1 Solution to the issues on profiting from female sexy appearance 24

5.1.1 Selection 24

5.1.2 Implementation 26

5.2 Solution to the issues on targeted customers 27

5.2.1 Selection 27

5.2.2 Implementation 27

5.3 Solution to the issues on personnel recruitment 28

5.3.1 Selection 28

5.3.2 Implementation 29

. List of figure

Figure 1 The photo of Hooters girl of America 8

Figure 2 Advertisement for promotion 12

Figure 3 China Unemployment Rate 16

Figure 4 United States GDP per capita 16

Figure 5 Famous dishes of Hooters China 17

Figure 6 Chinese Hooters girls 25

  1. Introduction

Profile of Hooters of China (Hooters China 2007)

Hooters China is a beach-themed American invested chain restaurant. It is famous for the comfortable dining atmosphere, authentic American food with a wide variety of beer, spirits, world known spicy chicken wings as well as warm and vibrant Hooters Girl. Obviously, it is a bright symbol in American food culture and a complete subversion of the traditional dining concept which is full of fashion, joy, and creativity.

History

In the year of 2004, Hooters has launched in China. Since then, Hooters of China opens restaurants in Shanghai, Beijing, and Chengdu. And Hooters China also plans to open more restaurants in China. “Fantastic food, cold beer, with beautiful Hooters Girls, this combination will never be out of fashion.”

Hooters Chinas characteristics

·American owned company based on diversified development strategy.

·American beach-themed restaurant

·MasterCard, Magazine, T-shirts produced by Hooters

Staff

Over 5 Hooters restaurants in China with nearly 360 people and two thirds of the staff are Hooters Girls.

Selling Points

No.1 Hot Hooters Girl

No.2 Great Service

No.3 Relaxed Atmosphere

No.4 Great Food and Beverage of America

Target clients

Sixty-eight percent of customers are male, most between the ages of 25-54.

Current position

The brand new business mode of Hooters has enjoyed popularity by curious Chinese consumers (Xinhua net 2009). But there is still a shock between the Hooters culture and traditional Chinese culture, which includes the following areas (American public media 2008). Firstly, the recruitment culture of Hooters is focusing more on the female part (Hooters of America 2008). Secondly the food culture of Hooters such as the price and taste has a conflict with Chinese diet culture (Xinhua net 2009). Thirdly, another conflict is due to aesthetics on women’s appearance between Hooter China and Chinese people (Xinhua net 2009).

1.1 Research objectives

1.1.1 To investigate the cross cultural challenges faced by Hooters China.

1.1.2 To find solutions to the challenges faced by Hooters China in the culture areas

2.0 Findings

2.1 Brief description on the areas being investigated

2.1.1Culture system of China

Chinese has the culture with a long history and has been influenced by Confucianism and Taoism for thousands years, which makes them modest, introvert and conservative (Char4U 2009). This kind of culture even influences the business behaviors of Chinese people in the international market. And according to Xing, F (1995), we can get the following issues. For example, the business management of Chinese is influenced greatly by its cultural wisdom such as Sun Tzu’s “The Art of War”. Meanwhile under the influence of Confucian doctrines, the group orientation in business of Chinese is endowed with the characteristics of the emphasis on kinship and close personal relationships. And on the basis of these cultural influences, Chinese people also form a conservative attitude toward the beauty and women’s appearance, which should be introvert and low key. And then, Chinese people also form their own food culture which not only concentrates the taste but also focuses on the price under the influence of traditional culture.

2.1.2 The culture barrier towards profiting from female sexy appearance

Hooters launched China in the year of 2004 and till now there are 4 Hooters restaurants in the mainland of China (Hooters China 2007). The biggest selling point of Hooters is sexy hooters girls, who always wear in orange track shorts and shrunken white tank tops (Kuo, L 2010). And according to the description of American public media (2008), we know the information that when the photos for recruitment sent by Hooter’s headquarter in Atlanta to China almost scared off the prospective waitresses due to the fairly enormous chest size which is showed in the Figure 1(Hooters of America 2008,).

Figure 1 the photo of Hooters girl of America

figure 1.0

Source: Adapted from Hooters of America 2008, About Hooters, Hooters.

Meanwhile based on the survey of professor Liu, DL (Crienglish 2004), Chinese people still hold a conservative attitude stemmed from their culture towards the sexy matters. That is why Kuo, L (2010) described that at first most of the waitresses of Hooters China feel uncomfortable and shy about the strategy of profiting from female sexy appearance. For instance one of the Hooters girls of China named Jiang said both her boyfriend and her parents don’t like her work there, who even never come to the place for a meal. And at the same time she also thought working in Hooters isn’t a career and she can’t do that forever (Kuo, L 2010).

All in all, several Chinese people still hold some hostile attitude towards the Hooters strategy of profiting from female sex appearance as well as commercial sex. Although there are other people who accept the selling points of Hooters, they would not accept the fact that their relatives work as Hooters girls jus the same as the boyfriend and parents of Jiang (Kuo, L 2010).

2.1.3 The influence of cultural barrier on targeted customers of Hooters China

Hooters China has targeted the local Chinese consumers as its targeted consumers while 85% of customers have been foreigners since the year of 2005 and at present the foreign men still dominates a great portion of the number of Hooters China’s customers (Newham, F 2005 & Xinhua net 2009), for which culture difference is one of the main reasons. For instance, as we all know that China is a developing country, where there is a big gap between the rich and the poor and most of the Chinese consumers aren’t high income people even the white collars. And the culture of being diligent and thrifty as well as the reality of lower income make the diet culture of Chinese people focus on the food price and taste so much, that is to say they prefer the relatively cheaper while good taste food (People’s daily 2006). That is why most of the Chinese customers think that the food is simple just like the fast food and the taste of the food in Hooters restaurant is normal but they are over priced(Xinhua net (2009). For instance, Most of the Chinese consumers think the price of the food in Hooters restaurant such as one hamburger priced of RMB¥ 60 to 80, one bottle of cola priced of RMB¥ 20 and the nearly RMB¥ 240 Per capita consumption isn’t worthwhile compared with the capita consumption in other high class western restaurant(Xinhua net 2009). While towards these negative opinion, Hooters China states that they are western restaurant not western fast food, so the price is normal (Xinhua net 2009).

2.1.4 The conflicts caused by Hooters personnel recruitment culture

According to the data from Hooters China (2007) and Hooters of America (2008), Hooters has the recruitment culture of only hiring girls as the Hooters girls and in Hooters China this kind of tradition still remains. Due to China has a long history of masculine cultural values, the inclination for women on personnel recruitment of Hooters China has already arouse the criticism of sex discrimination (Newham, F 2005). And meanwhile with the development of the country, the social status of Chinese women has become higher and higher, so the selling points of women’s sexy appearance of Hooters have been against by some feminists of China (Minkey 2009).

2.2 Best practice available

From the year of 1987 till now, KFC has opened more than 2100 KFC restaurants in mainland China and we can see its success in China just from the large number of KFC restaurants (KFC 2009). The success of KFC in China can be owed to the blend of KFC brand with Chinese cultural characteristics (Sexton, J 2008). Firstly, KFC in China adopts the staffing philosophy of recruiting the host country nationals, which help KFC have a better understanding of the Chinese cultural context such as Chinese people’s love and hate on food, the influence of Confucianism, Buddhism as well as Taoism on Chinese people’s preference towards food and so on (Griffin, RW & Pustay, MW 2010). Secondly, KFC China has combined the KFC food with the local diet culture in its menu such as the rice porridge with thousand year old eggs, youtiao-a sort of Chinese doughnut and so on(Sexton, J 2008). Thirdly KFC adopts franchising and strategic alliances to facilitate its business in China, which make KFC get more useful information and better understand the local culture (Griffin, RW & Pustay, MW 2010). So under this strategy, the head quarter of KFC can have a steady income even under some politic risks of China (Zheng, C 2004).

By and large the success of KFC in China can become the useful guideline for Hooters to run its restaurants in the mainland China.

Meanwhile for Hooters China, it also has some outstanding points, which also help it function without big problems in China. The first one is its selling points of the Hooters girls’ culture. Although there have already been some theme restaurants in China such as NYC and Rainforest cafe, the Hooters Girls culture of Hooters are obvious the shining points compared with other theme restaurant. Because most of the Hooters girls are college students, who are well educated, young, and full of vigor and can speak influence English, it helps Hooters China gain a lot of customers specially the young guys (Newham, F 2005). The second one is its promotion strategy which has absorbed some essences of Chinese diet culture, such as the coupons and favorable price showed in the promoting advertisements of Hooters China in Figure 2 (Hooters China 2007), which help Hooters China win more guests due to consumer psychology and the focusing on the food price Chinese diet culture that coupons and promotion can motivate the consumption behavior of consumers because they think they can enjoy a cheaper price or service by using coupons (Perner, L n.d.).

Figure 2 Advertisement for promotion

figure 2.0

— Hooters China

Source: Adapted from Hooters China official website

3.0 Analysis

3.3.1 The analysis of culture barrier towards profiting from female sexy appearance

Chinese has a long history nearly five thousand years, in which there are two main cultural systems including Confucianism and Taoism, which have great influence on the character of Chinese (Char4U 2009). Confucianism emphasizes the behaviors of women should have the character of self-discipline, humility as well as chastity, which even become the golden rule for the Chinese to judge the behaviors of women (Women in World History Curriculum 2010). Meanwhile the Taoism also totally agrees the traditional doctrine for women’s behavior, which is called three obediences and four virtues (Despeux, C & Kohn, L 2003). The so called three obediences and four virtues includes three obediences such as obey her father as a daughter, obey her husband as a wife as well as obey her sons in widowhood and the four virtues such as morality, proper speech, modest manner as well as diligent work (Ying, HJ 2001). All the views from Confucianism and Taoism give Chinese people great influence and that also become the standard to judge the behaviors of women, which should be self-discipline, humility as well as chastity.

And at the same time, due to the great influence of Confucianism and Taoism about the public behavior which should also be self-discipline and conservative (Despeux, C & Kohn, L 2003), the Chinese government officially control the public presentation of sex and sexuality strictly (Newham, F 2005). For example, the movie of ‘Brokenback Mountain’ was banned in mainland China and several parts of movies such as ‘Brave Heart’ and ‘Lust caution’ in China were cut due to the serious censorship of China under the influence of conservative culture especially towards some issues referring to the sex, violence and other related areas(Zissis, C 2008).

By and large, due to such long history influenced by the Confucianism and Taoism, most of the Chinese people hold conservative ideas about the behaviors of women especially in the public and the strict censorship of Chinese towards sex issues are also the representation of the influence of the cultural essence of Confucianism and Taoism (Women in World History Curriculum 2010). And meanwhile, hostessing is a controversial social issue in China, in which women often have drinks and flirts with the guests to get fee (Newham, F 2005). Hostessing is regard as low down and unchaste job for women, which are against by most of the Chinese people who are influenced by the doctrines of Confucianism and Taoism (Unknown 2001). And the selling points of Hooters China is also using the women to dance and the sexy appearance to make profit which is easily be misunderstood as hostessing by Chinese people, because such kind of restaurants like Hooters China is totally new for them.

Based on the above analysis, we can understand why there are several Chinese people don’t welcome Hooters strategy of profiting from female sex appearance and why the family of the Chinese Hooters girl Jiang doesn’t like her job, which are because the traditional cultural views about women’s behaviors as humility and chastity isn’t compatible with Hooters selling points of emphasis of female sex appearance, which requires the Hooters girls wear sexy clothes in public.

3.3.2 The analysis of cultural barrier on targeted customers of Hooters China and related food price issues

China is a developing country. Although it has a fast developing speed and obvious increasing rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as it is showed in Figure 3(Trading economics 2009), the GDP per capita of $1963 USD is still very low compared to $38206 USD of the USA, which is showed in Figure 4(Trading economics 2009) . And meanwhile from Figure 5 (Hooters China 2007), the dishes of Hooters China are very simple just some traditional fast food of America, while the price is relatively high compared with the same level of these kind of food in other western restaurants (Xinhua net 2009).

Based on the information from the above and the cultural influence, we can conclude why the regulars of Hooters China restaurant are almost the foreigners which conflicts the market plan of attracting more Chinese customers from Hooters China (Hooters China 2007). The reasons are as follows. Firstly, the diligent and thrifty traditional culture from Confucianism and Taoism and the relative low income make a special diet culture with heavy Chinese characteristics come into being, which not only focuses the food taste but also emphasizes the food price so much(Heilongjiang University n.d.). From the information obtaining from Xinhua net (2009), the average consumption in the restaurants of Hooters China is at least RMB¥ 240, which is relatively high compared to the average income of $1963 USD per year and against the Chinese diet culture of cheap and fine. And Hooters China is an American owned restaurant, in which the style, food taste, operation system even the food price is so American (Hooters China 2007). Meanwhile, the income of western foreigners in China is relatively high and they have already accepted the diet culture of Hooters and its culture of getting profit from female sex appearance due to its success in some of western countries such as the USA, France, Italy and so on (Minkey 2009). That why the regulars in the restaurants of Hooters China are almost foreigners. Secondly, the taste of the food is normal American food and hasn’t any special character just as the same as the description from Xinhua net (2009). That why there are so many complaints from the consumers about the taste and price of the food in Hooters China under the Chinese diet culture’s influence.

Figure 3 China GDP per capita (constant prices since 2000)

figure 3.0

—GDP Per Capita in US Dollars at constant prices since 2000

Source: Adapted from the World Bank Group

Figure 4 United States GDP per capita (constant prices since 2000)

figure 4.0

—GDP Per Capita in US Dollars at constant prices since 2000

Source: Adapted from the World Bank Group

Figure 5 Famous dishes of Hooters China

Chicken Parmesan Platter

Chicken Parmesan Platter

Chicken Wings

Chicken Wings

Hooters Cobb salad

Hooters Cobb salad

soups

 

Soups

Source: Adapted from Hooters China 2007

3.3.3 The analysis of cultural conflicts on personnel recruitment issue of Hooters China

From the recruitment plan of Hooters China, we know that there are nearly 360 staffs in Hooters China while two thirds are Hooters girls (Hooters China 2007). Due to the recruitment culture of the inclination on women staff, Hooters has already aroused problems in other countries. In the year 1991, for example, Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC) had charged Hooters’ hiring practices due to it had the inclination of discrimination against men (Hooters of America 2008). And nowadays, Hooters has been in China for 7 years since the year 2004, it obvious would arouse the same problem related to the issue of discrimination in China, for instance the inclination for women on personnel recruitment of Hooters China has already arouse the criticism of sex discrimination (Newham, F 2005).

The reasons why the personnel recruitment practice of Hooters China would arouse the criticism of sex discrimination are as follows. At first, since the People’s Republic of China founded, it has been influenced by the western cultural essence of human rights. And this kind of cultural trend has already affected the attitudes of Chinese people toward human right, which includes three aspects such as extensiveness, equality and authenticity (China law info Co 1991). And due to the influence, nowadays most Chinese people are embedded with the attitude of equality irrespective of the money and property status as well as of nationality, race, sex, occupation, family background, and religion, level of education and duration of residence (China law info Co 1991). From the above information, it is easy to see that Chinese begin to emphasize the equality more and more and they also focus the work equality more and more. That’s the first reason why Hooters China has aroused the criticism of sex discrimination due to their personnel recruitment only focusing on women workers not men. Secondly, the Chinese have more than five thousand years long history from Spring and Autumn Warring States period to the feudal dynasties, masculine values played the main role in these period, which also has a great influence on the attitude of nowadays Chinese people (Zhang, YT & Zhang, ZM, n.d.). And the inclination of hiring only female staff of Hooters China becomes the challenge to the masculine power of Chinese society that is another reason why Hooters China has aroused the criticism of sex discrimination.

Meanwhile, besides the trouble related to the issues of discrimination towards male, Hooters China has also encountered the trouble related to feminism (Minkey 2009). Nowadays, due to the advent of feminist culture in the worldwide, it isn’t the first time that Hooters has been blamed by feminists. For example, Carol Adams as the radical American feminist, scholar and vegetarian criticized the consumption behaviors in Hooters restaurants in her book of ‘The Sexual Politics of Meat’ like this that it is the insult to females in the public no matter whether men have realized or not(Minkey 2009). Due to this, Hooters’ selling point of profiting from female sex appearance has always been criticized once Hooters launched in a new place, besides in China (Minkey 2009). And at the same time, the social status of Chinese women have been improved a lot such as massive female participation in some activities which are socially organized and related to the gaining of equal pay and equal opportunities compared to male, equal education chance and so on (Chun, L 2008). And Hooters China focuses on the female sexy appearance to attract customers, especially male consumers, which to some feminists of China is just like Carol Adams’s criticism that it is an open insult to females in the public(Minkey 2009). That’s why Hooters China has been against by some Chinese feminists.

4.0 Conclusion

4.1 Problems

Based on the information from Findings and Analysis, we can make the following conclusion about the problems Hooters has encountered in Chinese market. Firstly, Hooters’ culture of profiting from women’s sexy appearance conflicts with the traditional and conservative Chinese culture. Secondly, due to the Chinese diet culture of focusing on the food price and taste, the number of local customers in Hooters China restaurants is less compared with the western customers. Thirdly, there are also cultural conflicts on personnel recruitment issue between Hooters China and Chinese people including the gender discrimination issue and feminism issue.

4.2 Alternatives

4.2.1 Reduce the culture barrier towards profiting from female sexy appearance

4.2.1.1 Option 1: Changing the Hooters Culture of profiting from the sexy appearance of female

From the above analysis, we can get that the appearance of wearing orange track shorts and shrunken white tank tops isn’t really proper dress for women in public based on the attitude of Chinese. To solve this problem, one option for Hooters China is to change the wearing style of Hooters girls into more conservative one.

4.2.1.2 Option 2: Propagandizing properly to correct some misunderstanding on Hooters China selling point

The reason why some Chinese don’t accept Hooters China’s selling point of profit from female sexy appearance is due to the misunderstanding that Hooters girls are the same as hostess in some pornographic places (Kuo, L 2010). So it is necessary for Hooters China to stress its good and clean fun of Hooters girls.

4.2.2 Reducing the cultural barrier to enhance the number of local customers

4.2.2.1 Option1: strategic alliance

Strategy alliance is a kind of cooperation between international firms such as cross-licensing of proprietary technology, sharing of production facilities, confounding of research projects, and marketing of each other’s products using existing distribution networks, which can help the member of the alliance get more profits(Griffin, RW & Pustay, MW 2010, p.391).

For instance, the five years strategy alliance between Yum which is the owner of KFC brand and Rostik Restaurants Limited (RRL) which is the owner of Russia’s top chicken restaurant chain makes 300 co-branded Rostik’s/KFC restaurants gain more in Russia via their cooperation (Louisville, KY 2005). Meanwhile, Meng Niu Dairy Group of China and KFC have formed strategy alliance that let people can enjoy milk from Meng Niu in KFC restaurants of China, which to both Meng Niu Dairy Group and KFC is a win-win strategy to gain more profit(Getty Images AsiaPac 2007).

And Hooters China can also learn from these successful examples of strategy alliance, which is to find partners in China and develop a kind of cooperation with the Chinese partners. On the basis of the information from Griffin, RW and Pustay, MW (2010), we can make a conclusion as the follows. Because the local partners understand the local culture and customers much better, they can help Hooters China function better. For instance, they can help Hooters obtaining knowledge, expertise which it lacks in Chinese market to reduce the side effect of cultural conflicts and attract more local customers.

Generally speaking, developing a strategic alliance with local Chinese partners is a good option for Hooters China to attract more local customers.

4.2.2.2 Option 2: franchising

Franchising is a popular strategy for internationalizing a business, which allows the franchisor more control over the franchisee and provides for more support from the franchisor to the franchisee than is the case in the licensor-licensee relationship (Griffin, RW & Pustay, MW 2010, p.376). Just as Griffin, RW and Pustay, MW (2010) mentioned in their book. Firstly, franchising can help Hooters expand its restaurant wildly in the potential Chinese market with relatively low risk as well as cost. Secondly, it can also make Hooters get important information about the local market in China such as the customs, culture and so on. Thirdly, it also can help Hooters learn valuable lessons from franchisees. KFC is also the successful example of adopting the strategy of international franchising, which helps the headquarter of KFC have a steady income even under some politic risks of China (Zheng, C 2004). And meanwhile Hooters also runs its restaurants internationally just as KFC does. Since there has been the example of successful international franchising, it is recommended that Hooters can also develop the strategy of franchising in Chinese market to attract more local customers and make more money.

4.2.3 Reducing cultural conflicts on personnel recruitment issue of Hooters China

4.2.3.1 Option 1: changing recruitment strategy

Since there are several criticisms on Hooters recruitment culture as the above described, Hooters China can try to change this kind of culture on personnel recruitment issue to recruit Hooters boy as the waiters. This kind of means can help Hooters China not only mollify these harsh criticisms such as discrimination and female insult but also attract more female customers due to the advent of Hooters boy.

4.2.3.2 Option 2: propagandizing properly to correct some misunderstanding on recruitment issues

Since there are several negative criticisms on the recruitment culture of Hooters China, it is necessary for it to correct and clear this misunderstanding. Propagandizing properly to stress the respect of Hooters China towards female and its healthy ideas towards sexy issue about women can help Hooters China gain a healthy reputation in Chinese market.

5.0 Recommendation

Due to these cultural conflicts on the profiting from female sexy appearance, marketing problems, and personnel recruitment issues, it is important for Hooters China to choose from the above options to solve these cultural problems.

5.1 Solution to the issues on profiting from female sexy appearance

5.1.1 Selection

As we know those Hooters girls who always wear orange shorts and a white tank top are always the cornerstones of Hooters restaurants (Hooters of America 2008). And Hooters is a beach-themed restaurant, so the healthy and sexy cheerleaders image of Hooters girls are very suitable for Hooters restaurants’ beach theme style. On the basis of the above options towards the issue of profiting from female sexy appearance, the option of propagandizing properly to correct some misunderstanding on Hooters China selling point is much better than changing the Hooters Culture of profiting from the sexy appearance of female. Firstly, Hooters restaurant is built on the beach-themed, in which the Hooters girls wearing orange shorts and a white tank top are so compatible, because no body would have formal wear such as suits and dress in the beach. If change the wearing style of Hooters girl such as dress or other style, it may affect all the theme of Hooters and then Hooters China can’t be called the real Hooters restaurants. Secondly, the wearing style of Hooters girls in China isn’t the same as some one overstates as hostess. Just as the Figure 6 (Minkey 2009) shows those Chinese Hooters girls who wear orange shorts and a white tank top try to create wonderful atmosphere for the customers via dancing, singing, playing hula hoops and talking with guests. And the whole scene is so healthy, positive and full of vigor which is so compatible with the beach theme. So the urgent affairs for Hooters China to deal with is not change its original culture of profiting from sexy appearance of Hooters girls but to correct the misunderstanding towards Hooters girls from Chinese people.

Figure 6 Chinese Hooters girls

figure 6.0

Source: Adapted from Bossline.com

5.1.2 Implementation

Based on the above analysis, to correct the misunderstanding towards the job of Hooters girls is the most suitable means to remove the culture barrier towards profiting from female sexy appearance in Chinese market. Due to the present situation of Hooters China restaurants in Chinese market, we have got the information. Every year there is a competition called Hooters Chinese Swimsuit Pageant hold by Hooters China and the winner can gain a big sum of money and go to America to take part in Hooters International Swimsuit Pageant. And the aim of Hooters Chinese Swimsuit Pageant is to show the confidence, beauty, health and vigor of the Hooters girls which is a big activity all over the world (PPSJ 2007). Since the activity is so healthy and positive for Hooters China to propagandize the sunny and healthy image of Hooters girls, it is necessary for Hooters China to stress the propaganda of Hooters Chinese Swimsuit Pageant which can help Chinese Hooters girls to show their sunny, vigorous, confident and positive image. So to stress the propaganda of this activity, Hooters China can propagandize it via ads in TV, newspapers or magazines. And meanwhile, it is also recommended for Hooters China to sponsor some sports events to reach the Chinese sports fans, because the sport itself means health which can be very useful for Hooters China to propagandize its healthy image. And it is also necessary for Chinese Hooters girls to take part in some charity activities which is also a proper and useful means for Hooters China to stress the healthy image of Hooters girls. By and large, through the above kinds of activities, Hooters China can make more Chinese people know Hooters girls and make people know the healthy and positive image of Hooters girls as well as accept their healthy sexy appearance.

5.2 Solution to the issues on targeted customers

5.2.1 Selection

Since one of the market problem of Hooters China is the lack of local Chinese customers, which is due to the different diet culture. It is recommended for Hooters China to adopt strategic alliance than franchising to solve this problem. Strategic alliance can facilitate the business of Hooters China to function much well. Because local partners have a better knowledge about the local market as well as the local Chinese customers especially the Chinese diet culture, these information can make Hooters China touch up its marketing strategy such as the food price as well as the flavor to gain more local customers(Griffin, RW & Pustay, MW 2010).

5.2.2 Implementation

Since the KFC has reached such successful achievements in China via strategic alliance, Hooters China can also adopt some golden essences from KFC due to they are both western restaurants in China (Sexton, J 2008). And from the above we can get the information that the relatively lower income and diligent as well as thrifty tradition from Confucianism and Taoism make Chinese people have a diet culture of focusing both food price and food taste (Heilongjiang University n.d.). But the American flavor and price in Hooters China restaurants have a conflict with that kind of diet culture of Chinese people (Xinhua net 2009). Due to the experience from KFC in China, we can find adopting strategic alliance may alleviate the conflict. Firstly, Hooters China can develop a strategic alliance with some local partners such as getting the food materials and condiments from the local partner just as KFC does which can help it reduce cost (Sexton, J 2008). Secondly, via strategic alliance, Hooters China can get more practical information about the diet culture such as flavor preference to develop some menus which are fit for Chinese customers just as KFC does such as the introduction of the rice porridge with thousand year old eggs, youtiao-a sort of Chinese doughnut and so on in KFC Chinese restaurants (Sexton, J 2008). Thirdly, via alliance with some powerful partners such KFC does with Meng Niu Dairy Group of China and Pepsi, it can also help Hooters China gain more, because the price of these beverage from these famous brand is fixed and they have already have their fixed consumers, while cooperation with them Hooters China can get profit from selling these drinks (Getty Images AsiaPac 2007). So due to the help of strategic alliance, Hooters China can use the saved cost to lower its food price and meanwhile add some new dishes blending with Chinese elements to attract more local customers. And at the same time keeping using its promotion strategy plus the above means can help Hooters China restaurants get more local customers.

5.3 Solution to the issues on personnel recruitment

5.3.1 Selection

To read the history of Hooters, it is easy to get the information that Hooters have encountered the problems such as criticisms on its unequal employment inclination and indignity towards women (Hooters of America 2008). And according to its experience of dealing with these cultural conflicts on the human recruitment issue, it is better for Hooters China to propagandize properly to correct some misunderstanding on recruitment issues rather than change recruitment strategy. Firstly, the inclination of only hiring girls as Hooters waitresses has it only basis which is reasonable such as the marketing investigation that most of the Hooters customers welcome girls as Hooters waitress not boys and women are more suitable to be the cheerleaders due to their instinct towards dancing and singing (Hooters of America 2008). Secondly, hiring female as the Hooters girls and requiring them wear orange track shorts and shrunken white tank tops to dance don’t mean indignity towards women, which is just a kind of culture just like the cheerleaders’ did in their college life(Hooters of America 2008). So the urgent affair for Hooters China to deal on the recruitment issue is to correct people’s misunderstanding and stress its healthy idea.

5.3.2 Implementation

To reduce cultural conflicts on personnel recruitment issue of Hooters China, propagandizing properly to correct some misunderstanding on recruitment issues is the most suitable way based on the above analysis while means of how to propagandizing properly is the key point for Hooters China . It is recommended for Hooters China to adopt the following means. Firstly, Hooters China can propagandize its respect for women via Hooters Chinese Swimsuit Pageant which is a stage for Chinese Hooters girls to show their beauty, confidence and sunny as well as positive image. This kind of activity just like the above described it can help Hooters China to propagandize its philosophy of being healthy and having fun as well as the cheerleader’s image of Hooters girls (Newham, F 2005). And meanwhile, the Chinese Hooters girls are almost college students who can speak fluent English and working in Hooters restaurants can also help these girls have a great many chances talking to foreigners which is a good experience for their future careers (Newham, F 2005). Hooters China can also use this advantage to show that it just offer the girls good chances to practice themselves which is totally not insult. And then from the Hooters America we know that Hooters has the policy of non-harassment which forbids unwelcome physical or verbal behavior (Hooters of America 2008). And Hooters China can also adopt this kind of policy to protect Hooters girls from harassment. Based on the above activities, Hooters China may correct those misunderstanding and recreate its image of respecting the female. Secondly, to remove the misunderstanding of discrimination on male, Hooters China can also do some marketing investigation and declare the necessity of hiring female as Hooters girls as well as emphasize the their welcome for male to apply for other position such as management jobs in Hooters China to remove the misunderstanding.

. Appendices

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